Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). From October 1, 2008, the U.S. Army Medical Department initiated a transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound service for TBI; included patients were retrospectively evaluated for TCD-determined incidence of post-traumatic cerebral vasospasm and intracranial hypertension after wartime TBI. Ninety patients were investigated with daily TCD studies and a comprehensive TCD protocol, and published diagnostic criteria for vasospasm and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) were applied. TCD signs of mild, moderate, and severe vasospasms were observed in 37%, 22%, and 12% of patients, respectively. TCD signs of intracranial hypertension were recorded in 62.2%; 5 patients (4.5%) underwent transluminal angioplasty for post-traumatic clinical vasospasm treatment, and 16 (14.4%) had cranioplasty. These findings demonstrate that cerebral arterial spasm and intracranial hypertension are frequent and significant complications of combat TBI; therefore, daily TCD monitoring is recommended for their recognition and subsequent management.