Characterization of a New Vaccinia virus Isolate Reveals the C23L Gene as a Putative Genetic Marker for Autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus

Felipe L. Assis, Gabriel M.F. Almeida, Danilo B. Oliveira, Ana P.M. Franco-Luiz, Rafael K. Campos, Maria I.M. Guedes, Flávio G. Fonseca, Giliane S. Trindade, Betânia P. Drumond, Erna G. Kroon, Jônatas S. Abrahão

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8 Scopus citations


Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV), have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods. The results from these approaches have grouped these VACV isolates into two different clusters. This dichotomy has elicited debates surrounding the origin of the Brazilian VACV and its epidemiological significance. To ascertain vital information to settle these debates, we and other research groups have made efforts to identify molecular markers to discriminate VACV from other viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and other VACV-BR groups. In this way, some genes have been identified as useful markers to discriminate between the VACV-BR groups. However, new markers are needed to infer ancestry and to correlate each sample or group with its unique epidemiological and biological features. The aims of this work were to characterize a new VACV isolate (VACV DMTV-2005) molecularly and biologically using conserved and non-conserved gene analyses for phylogenetic inference and to search for new genes that would elucidate the VACV-BR dichotomy. The VACV DMTV-2005 isolate reported in this study is biologically and phylogenetically clustered with other strains of Group 1 VACV-BR, the most prevalent VACV group that was isolated during the bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Sequence analysis of C23L, the gene that encodes for the CC-chemokine-binding protein, revealed a ten-nucleotide deletion, which is a new Group 1 Brazilian VACV genetic marker. This deletion in the C23L open reading frame produces a premature stop-codon that is shared by all Group 1 VACV-BR strains and may also reflect the VACV-BR dichotomy; the deletion can also be considered to be a putative genetic marker for non-virulent Brazilian VACV isolates and may be used for the detection and molecular characterization of new isolates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere50413
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 26 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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