Chest Masculinization Surgery

Cori A. Agarwal, Daniel P. Donato

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Chest reconstruction in transmen, sometimes referred to as “top surgery, " or chest masculinization, is often an important part of the transition process. It is often the initial procedure performed and sometimes the only procedure performed. In a survey of transgender men, the majority reported either having had chest surgery (36%) or desiring it in the future (61%). Chest reconstruction can also be important for nonbinary individuals who are distressed by the presence of their breasts. While cross-sex hormone treatment goes a long way in allowing female-to-male (FTM) patients to “pass” in public as their preferred gender, distress over the presence of their breasts contributes to numerous social, physical, and psychological problems. Many bind their breasts daily with tight wraps and restrictive garments in order to conceal them, a process that is uncomfortable, is cumbersome, and can lead to rashes, acne, restriction in activity, and even difficulty breathing. Studies suggest that FTM chest reconstruction improves self-esteem and body image and as a result improves quality of life. The goals of FTM chest surgery are to provide smooth masculine chest contours, minimize and camouflage scars along anatomic lines, and create an aesthetic male nipple-areolar complex (NAC).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGender Confirmation Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Techniques for an Emerging Field
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783030290931
ISBN (Print)9783030290924
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Chest masculinization
  • FTM top surgery
  • Female-to-male chest reconstruction
  • Top surgery
  • Transgender top surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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