Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein

Johnny Peterson, Shamsher S. Saini, William D. Dickey, Gary R. Klimpel, John S. Bomalaski, Mike A. Clark, Xin Jing Xu, Ashok Chopra

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Abstract

The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT)-stimulated arachidonate metabolism was evaluated. CT caused rapid in vitro synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in murine smooth muscle-like cells (BC3H1), reaching maximal levels within 3 to 4 min. In comparison, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unchanged, and addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not affect PGE2 synthesis. CT-induced PGE2 synthesis was prevented by actinomycin D or cycloheximide, indicating a need for de novo protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from BC3H1 cells revealed that exposure to CT resulted in an increase in abundance of mRNA encoding phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAP). PLAP is a regulatory protein that increases the enzymatic activity of cellular PLA2, which in turn causes increased hydrolysis of arachidonate from membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, CT evoked the accumulation of PLAP mRNA in J774 (murine monocyte/macrophage) and Caco-2 (human intestinal epithelial) cells in vitro, but the responses were more delayed than that of BC3H1 cells. A protein band of approximately 35 kDa, which corresponded to the size of PLAP, was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of Caco-2 cells by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis using affinity-purified antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides. Synthesis of PLAP protein was increased after 2 h of exposure to CT. Exposure of mouse intestinal loops to either CT or live Salmonella typhimurium for 3 h increased mucosal PLAP mRNA levels. The role of PLAP in CT-induced PGE2 synthesis provides an attractive explanation for the reported suppression of CT-induced intestinal secretion by inhibitors of protein synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2137-2143
Number of pages7
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume64
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1996

Fingerprint

Cholera Toxin
Proteins
Dinoprostone
Messenger RNA
phospholipase A2-activating protein
Western Blotting
Intestinal Secretions
Bucladesine
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Antibody Affinity
Caco-2 Cells
Phospholipases A2
Dactinomycin
Salmonella typhimurium
Cycloheximide
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Northern Blotting
Cyclic AMP
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Monocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Peterson, J., Saini, S. S., Dickey, W. D., Klimpel, G. R., Bomalaski, J. S., Clark, M. A., ... Chopra, A. (1996). Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein. Infection and Immunity, 64(6), 2137-2143.

Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein. / Peterson, Johnny; Saini, Shamsher S.; Dickey, William D.; Klimpel, Gary R.; Bomalaski, John S.; Clark, Mike A.; Xu, Xin Jing; Chopra, Ashok.

In: Infection and Immunity, Vol. 64, No. 6, 06.1996, p. 2137-2143.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peterson, J, Saini, SS, Dickey, WD, Klimpel, GR, Bomalaski, JS, Clark, MA, Xu, XJ & Chopra, A 1996, 'Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein', Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 2137-2143.
Peterson J, Saini SS, Dickey WD, Klimpel GR, Bomalaski JS, Clark MA et al. Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein. Infection and Immunity. 1996 Jun;64(6):2137-2143.
Peterson, Johnny ; Saini, Shamsher S. ; Dickey, William D. ; Klimpel, Gary R. ; Bomalaski, John S. ; Clark, Mike A. ; Xu, Xin Jing ; Chopra, Ashok. / Cholera toxin induces synthesis of phospholipase A2-activating protein. In: Infection and Immunity. 1996 ; Vol. 64, No. 6. pp. 2137-2143.
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abstract = "The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT)-stimulated arachidonate metabolism was evaluated. CT caused rapid in vitro synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in murine smooth muscle-like cells (BC3H1), reaching maximal levels within 3 to 4 min. In comparison, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unchanged, and addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not affect PGE2 synthesis. CT-induced PGE2 synthesis was prevented by actinomycin D or cycloheximide, indicating a need for de novo protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from BC3H1 cells revealed that exposure to CT resulted in an increase in abundance of mRNA encoding phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAP). PLAP is a regulatory protein that increases the enzymatic activity of cellular PLA2, which in turn causes increased hydrolysis of arachidonate from membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, CT evoked the accumulation of PLAP mRNA in J774 (murine monocyte/macrophage) and Caco-2 (human intestinal epithelial) cells in vitro, but the responses were more delayed than that of BC3H1 cells. A protein band of approximately 35 kDa, which corresponded to the size of PLAP, was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of Caco-2 cells by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis using affinity-purified antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides. Synthesis of PLAP protein was increased after 2 h of exposure to CT. Exposure of mouse intestinal loops to either CT or live Salmonella typhimurium for 3 h increased mucosal PLAP mRNA levels. The role of PLAP in CT-induced PGE2 synthesis provides an attractive explanation for the reported suppression of CT-induced intestinal secretion by inhibitors of protein synthesis.",
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