Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and peripheral arterial disease outcomes

Ayman Samman Tahhan, Salim S. Hayek, Pratik Sandesara, Jamal Hajjari, Muhammad Hammadah, Wesley T. O'Neal, Heval M. Kelli, Ayman Alkhoder, Nima Ghasemzadeh, Yi An Ko, Hiroshi Aida, Mohamad Mazen Gafeer, Naser Abdelhadi, Kareem Hosny Mohammed, Keyur Patel, Shipra Arya, Jochen Reiser, Viola Vaccarino, Laurence Sperling, Arshed Quyyumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Background and aims Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of immune activation associated with atherosclerosis. Whether suPAR levels are associated with prevalent peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its adverse outcomes remains unknown and is the aim of the study. Methods SuPAR levels were measured in 5810 patients (mean age 63 years, 63% male, 77% with obstructive coronary artery disease [CAD]) undergoing cardiac catheterization. The presence of PAD (n = 967, 17%) was classified as carotid (36%), lower/upper extremities (30%), aortic (15%) and multisite disease (19%). Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine independent predictors of prevalent PAD and outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular death and PAD-related events after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal function, heart failure history, and obstructive CAD. Results Plasma suPAR levels were 22.5% (p < 0.001) higher in patients with PAD compared to those without PAD. Plasma suPAR was higher in patients with more extensive PAD (≥2 compared to single site) p < 0.001. After multivariable adjustment, suPAR was associated with prevalent PAD; odds ratio (OR) for highest compared to lowest tertile of 2.0, 95% CI (1.6–2.5) p < 0.001. In Cox survival analyses adjusted for clinical characteristics and medication regimen, suPAR (in the highest vs. lowest tertile) remained an independent predictor of all-cause death [HR 3.1, 95% CI (1.9–5.3)], cardiovascular death [HR 3.5, 95% CI (1.8–7.0)] and PAD-related events [HR = 1.8, 95% CI (1.3–2.6) p < 0.001 for all]. Conclusions Plasma suPAR level is predictive of prevalent PAD and of incident cardiovascular and PAD-related events. Whether SuPAR measurement can help screen, risk stratify, or monitor therapeutic responses in PAD requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-114
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Sep 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Atherosclerosis
  • CAD
  • Cardiovascular outcomes
  • PAD
  • PAD-Related outcomes
  • SuPAR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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