HIV infection has emerged as a colossal problem with epidemic proportions. According to an estimate from UNAIDS about 36.1 million people all over the world are infected at present. In India about 3.5 million people are infected. The infection has evolved into phase II process of disease evolution, spreading from high-risk population to the general population. The antenatal HIV seropositivity has shown a steady increase from 0.1% to 2% in some tertiary care hospitals in Mumbai. Pediatric HIV infection presents with diverse clinical manifestations. In developing countries like India, diagnosis of infection during first year of life in perinatally exposed infants poses a problem due to lack of easy accessibility and increased cost of diagnostic facilities like HIV-PCR, CD4/CD8 counts and viral cultures. Moreover, lack of adequate drugs and exorbitant cost of sustaining antiretroviral therapy complicates the management issues. An assortment of antiretovirals is available in USA and other developed countries. In India drugs like zidovudine, lamivudine, stavudine, nevirapine and indinavir are available and are used in symptomatic patients. CDC has defined definite treatment guidelines for pediatric population recently. These guidelines need to be modified in our set up. At the present juncture in India the emphasis remains on the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections like tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii and on prevention of perinatal transmission with zidovudine. This brief review deals with various clinical manifestations as relevantin a developing country like India and recent advances in antiretroviral therapy.
- HIV infection in children
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health