Clinical Pathways of Third-Line Treatment of Overactive Bladder in the Elderly

Bilal Farhan, Gamal Ghoniem

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome of urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency, nocturia, and sometimes urinary urgency incontinence. There are many guidelines for the OAB treatment which are constructed on a stepwise fashion starting from the least invasive to the more invasive therapy. The emergence of third-line therapy (AUA/SUFU guidelines) has resulted in significant decrease of more invasive surgery and improved patients’ quality of life. The aim of a clinical pathway is to improve the quality of care, reduce risks, increase patient satisfaction, and increase the efficiency in the use of resources. The available options for the third-line OAB treatments include intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS). The available evidence confirms that all three treatment approaches are well tolerated and effective, although only botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) and SNS can achieve nearly a cure of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The choice among the different third-line treatment depends on patient preference, availability, and local expertise. The application of these pathways can improve incontinence care by letting physicians adequately communicate with patients and select individualized therapy at an early stage especially for elderly patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-390
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Bladder Dysfunction Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Clinical pathways
  • Onabotulinum toxin A
  • Overactive bladder
  • Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation
  • Sacral neuromodulation
  • Third line treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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