Closed-loop control of fluid therapy for treatment of hypovolemia

George Kramer, Michael P. Kinsky, Donald S. Prough, Jose Salinas, Jill L. Sondeen, Michelle L. Hazel-Scerbo, Charles E. Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Closed-loop algorithms and resuscitation systems are being developed to control IV infusion rate during early resuscitation of hypovolemia. Although several different physiologic variables have been suggested as an endpoint to guide fluid therapy, blood pressure remains the most used variable for the initial assessment of hemorrhagic shock and the treatment response to volume loading. Closed-loop algorithms use a controller function to alter infusion rate inversely to blood pressure. Studies in hemorrhaged conscious sheep suggest that: (1) a small reduction in target blood pressure can result in a significant reduction in volume requirement; (2) nonlinear algorithms may reduce the risk of increased internal bleeding during resuscitation; (3) algorithm control functions based on proportional-integral, fuzzy logic, or nonlinear decision tables were found to restore and maintain blood pressure equally well. Proportional-integral and fuzzy logic algorithms reduced mean fluid volume requirements compared with the nonlinear decision table; and (4) several algorithms have been constructed to the specific mechanism of injury and the volume expansion properties of different fluids. Closed-loop systems are undergoing translation from animal to patient studies. Future smart resuscitation systems will benefit from new noninvasive technologies for monitoring blood pressure and the development of computer controlled high flow intravenous pumps.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S333-S341
JournalJournal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care
Issue numberSUPPL. 4
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Autonomous healthcare
  • Circulatory shock
  • Combat casualty care
  • Fluid resuscitation
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Closed-loop control of fluid therapy for treatment of hypovolemia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this