Coexistent intraventricular abnormalities in periventricular giant arachnoid cysts: Clinical article

Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Jaime Torres-Corzo, Roberto Rodriguez Della Vecchia, Aaron Mohanty, Haring J.W. Nauta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Object. Arachnoid cysts are congenital lesions that arise during development by splitting of the arachnoid membrane. Large cysts can be adjacent to CSF pathways causing a marked midline shift and hydrocephalus. The association between a large arachnoid cyst and hydrocephalus has been commonly described as being due to a mass effect, but these previous reports have not focused closely on any associated intraventricular abnormalities. Methods. Seven patients who were previously treated with a cystoperitoneal shunt presented with shunt failure, hydrocephalus, and/or cyst expansion. All of these patients had giant arachnoid cysts extending to the periventricular region from the original site, which was the sylvian fissure in 4 patients, and the suprasellar cistern, quadrigeminal cistern, and interhemispheric fissure in 1 patient each. Endoscopic exploration of the ventricular system and cyst fenestration was then performed in all patients. Results. The endoscopic findings were obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct by a membrane not related to the cyst in 5 patients, occlusion of the foramen of Monro in 6, septum pellucidum hypoplasia in 2, and occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct by a quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst in 1. Endoscopic procedures performed were septum pellucidum fenestration and/or foraminoplasty in 5 patients, aqueductoplasty in 2, endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5, fenestration of the lamina terminalis in 1, and direct cystocisternostomy in 1. After the endoscopic procedure, signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus improved in all patients, with a reduction in size of the cyst and the ventricle. Conclusions. Ventricular abnormalities contributing to hydrocephalus may be associated with arachnoid cysts. These abnormalities may more likely reflect a common origin than a casual relation. Foramen of Monro stenosis and cerebral aqueduct occlusion associated with an arachnoid cyst can be more frequent than has been previously believed. In cases of periventricular giant arachnoid cysts, endoscopic exploration is a good alternative for examining the ventricular system and identifying and treating CSF obstructions caused by and/or related to arachnoid cysts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-231
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

Keywords

  • Aqueductal stenosis
  • Flexible endoscopy
  • Giant arachnoid cyst
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Neuroendoscopy
  • Shunt failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology

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