Cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: Neurochemical and clinicopathological contributions

D. J. Zgaljardic, N. S. Foldi, J. C. Borod

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

113 Scopus citations


The cognitive and behavioral sequelae (i.e., nonmotor profile) of Parkinson's disease (PD), with executive dysfunction and depression being most prominent, have typically been overshadowed due to an emphasis on motor symptomatology. The apparent categorization of PD as a disorder isolated to the dopaminergic system may be a generalization of the disease pathology. Dopamine therapy, used for the treatment of motor symptoms, has not consistently been shown to resolve nonmotor impairments. Research evidence indicates that nondopaminergic neurotransmitter systems (i.e., serotonergic, noradrenergic, & cholinergic) are disrupted in PD and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Furthermore, Lewy bodies within cortical and subcortical structures can add to the nonmotor profile in PD. Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with PD are few, especially for nondemented patients. The current review of the literature highlights evidence that associates nonmotor dysfunctions with neurochemical and clinicopathological correlates of PD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1287-1301
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Neural Transmission
Issue number10-11
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavior
  • Cognition
  • Dementia
  • Lewy bodies
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


Dive into the research topics of 'Cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: Neurochemical and clinicopathological contributions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this