Background: We have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of AIGIV when given in combination with levofloxacin and the effective window of treatment to assess the added benefit provided by AIGIV over standard antibiotic treatment alone in a New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Methods: Rabbits were exposed to lethal dose of aerosolized spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) and treated intravenously with either placebo, (normal immune globulin intravenous, IGIV) or 15 U/kg of AIGIV, along with oral levofloxacin treatment at various time points (30-96 hours) after anthrax exposure. Results: The majority of treated animals (>88%) survived in both treatment groups when treatment was initiated within 60 hours of post-exposure. However, reduced survival of 55%, 33% and 25% was observed for placebo + levofloxacin group when the treatment was initiated at 72, 84 and 96 hours post-exposure, respectively. Conversely, a survival rate of 65%, 40% and 71% was observed in the AIGIV + levofloxacin treated groups at these time points. Conclusions: The combination of AIGIV with antibiotics provided an improvement in survival compared to levofloxacin treatment alone when treatment was delayed up to 96 hours post-anthrax exposure. Additionally, AIGIV treatment when given as an adjunct therapy at any of the time points tested did not interfere with the efficacy of levofloxacin.
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