Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

Yow Jiun Jeng, Mikhail Kochukov, Cheryl S. Watson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods: We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2) phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER) were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively). Results: All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions: Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are vulnerable to very low concentrations of these structurally related xenoestrogens. Because of their non-classical dose-responses, they must be studied in detail to pinpoint effective concentrations and the directions of response changes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number61
    JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
    Volume9
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    Estrogen Receptors
    Prolactin
    Estrogens
    Phosphotransferases
    Calcium
    Membranes
    Immunoassay
    Estradiol
    Estriol
    Estrone
    Fura-2
    Optical Imaging
    Calcium Channels
    Radio
    Plastics
    Phosphorylation
    Cell Membrane
    Pregnancy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Medicine(all)

    Cite this

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    title = "Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells",
    abstract = "Background: Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods: We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2) phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER) were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively). Results: All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the {\%} of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions: Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are vulnerable to very low concentrations of these structurally related xenoestrogens. Because of their non-classical dose-responses, they must be studied in detail to pinpoint effective concentrations and the directions of response changes.",
    author = "Jeng, {Yow Jiun} and Mikhail Kochukov and Watson, {Cheryl S.}",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1186/1476-069X-9-61",
    language = "English (US)",
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    T1 - Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

    AU - Jeng, Yow Jiun

    AU - Kochukov, Mikhail

    AU - Watson, Cheryl S.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Background: Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods: We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2) phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER) were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively). Results: All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions: Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are vulnerable to very low concentrations of these structurally related xenoestrogens. Because of their non-classical dose-responses, they must be studied in detail to pinpoint effective concentrations and the directions of response changes.

    AB - Background: Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods: We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2) phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER) were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively). Results: All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions: Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are vulnerable to very low concentrations of these structurally related xenoestrogens. Because of their non-classical dose-responses, they must be studied in detail to pinpoint effective concentrations and the directions of response changes.

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