Fasted Wistar rats were given a mild level of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and then subjected to 6 min of transient forebrain ischemia 24 h posttrauma. One group was given simultaneous 1 mg/kg scopolamine and 4 mg/kg phencyclidine intraperitoneally (IP) 15 min before trauma and another group an equal volume of plasmalyte A solution. After 7 days of postinjury survival, placebo-treated rats demonstrated increased posttraumatic vulnerability to secondary ischemic CA1 neuronal death even 24 h after trauma. This finding confirmed that increased posttraumatic ischemic vulnerability persists for at least 24 h even following mild trauma. Combined muscarinic receptor and N-methyl-daspartate (NMDA) receptor coupled ion channel blockade given and present during the mild TBI statistically attenuated this enhanced secondary ischemic CA1 neuronal death and thus posttraumatic increased ischemic vulnerability. Placebo-treated rats had 335.3 ± 93.6 CA1 neurons/106μm2 and drug-treated rats had 844.8 ± 184.9 CA1 neurons/106μm2. This result suggests that muscarinic and/or NMDA receptor-mediated events confined to TBI and the early posttraumatic period are in part responsible for the phenomenon of increased posttraumatic ischemic vulnerability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology