Laryngeal physiology depends on dynamic neuromuscular forces acting on a basic framework of cartilage and specialized soft tissues, that is, the vocal folds. A working understanding of this organ in health and disease requires knowledge of specific neurological processes that may affect voice, swallowing, and airway regulation. Neuromuscular impairment continues to be a dominant topic in the study of laryngeal disorders. This subcommittee presentation reviews important aspects of the neurolaryngeal history and physical examination. After this foundation, 4 common movement disorders affecting the larynx are covered in separate subsections. These are stroke, Parkinson's disease, laryngeal tremor, and spasmodic dysphonia. State-of-the-art reviews reflecting our understanding of these clinical issues are presented in this summary.
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