Comparing Survival Outcomes and Costs Associated with Radical Cystectomy and Trimodal Therapy for Older Adults with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Stephen Williams, Yong Shan, Usama Jazzar, Hemalkumar Mehta, Jacques Baillargeon, Jinhai Huo, Anthony J. Senagore, Eduardo Orihuela, Douglas Tyler, Todd Swanson, Ashish M. Kamat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance: Radical cystectomy is the guidelines-recommended treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but a resurgence of trimodal therapy has occurred. Limited comparative data are available on outcomes and costs attributable to these 2 treatments. Objective: To compare the survival outcomes and costs between trimodal therapy and radical cystectomy in older adults with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. A total of 3200 older adults (aged ≥66 years) with clinical stage T2 to T4a bladder cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, and with claims data available through December 31, 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients who received radical cystectomy underwent either only surgery or surgery in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who received trimodal therapy underwent transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Propensity score matching by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to March 11, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model. All Medicare health care costs for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services within 30, 90, and 180 days of treatment were compared. The total amount spent nationwide was estimated, using 180-day medical costs between treatments, by the total number of new cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States in 2011. Results: Of the 3200 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2048 (64.0%) were men and 1152 (36.0%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 75.8 (6.0) years. After propensity score matching, 687 patients (21.5%) underwent trimodal therapy and 687 patients (21.5%) underwent radical cystectomy. Patients who underwent trimodal therapy had significantly decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.31-1.69) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.83). No differences in costs at 30 days were observed between trimodal therapy ($15 233 in 2002 vs $18 743 in 2011) and radical cystectomy ($17 990 in 2002 vs $21 738 in 2011). However, median total costs were significantly higher with trimodal therapy than with radical cystectomy at 90 days ($80174 vs $69181; median difference, $8964; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $3848-$14 079) and at 180 days ($179891 vs $107017; median difference, $63771; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $55512-$72 029). Extrapolating these figures to the total US population revealed $335 million in excess spending for trimodal therapy compared with the less costly radical cystectomy ($492 million) for patients who received a muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis in 2011. Conclusions and Relevance: Trimodal therapy was associated with significantly decreased overall survival and cancer-specific survival as well as $335 million in excess spending in 2011. These findings have important health policy implications regarding the appropriate use of high value-based care among older adults with invasive bladder cancer who are candidates for either radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)881-889
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA Surgery
Volume153
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018

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Cystectomy
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Costs and Cost Analysis
Muscles
Survival
Therapeutics
Propensity Score
Medicare
Health Care Costs
Radiotherapy
Drug Therapy
Neoplasms
Ambulatory Care
Health Policy
Proportional Hazards Models
Population
Inpatients
Epidemiology
Urinary Bladder
Cohort Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Comparing Survival Outcomes and Costs Associated with Radical Cystectomy and Trimodal Therapy for Older Adults with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. / Williams, Stephen; Shan, Yong; Jazzar, Usama; Mehta, Hemalkumar; Baillargeon, Jacques; Huo, Jinhai; Senagore, Anthony J.; Orihuela, Eduardo; Tyler, Douglas; Swanson, Todd; Kamat, Ashish M.

In: JAMA Surgery, Vol. 153, No. 10, 01.10.2018, p. 881-889.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Williams, Stephen ; Shan, Yong ; Jazzar, Usama ; Mehta, Hemalkumar ; Baillargeon, Jacques ; Huo, Jinhai ; Senagore, Anthony J. ; Orihuela, Eduardo ; Tyler, Douglas ; Swanson, Todd ; Kamat, Ashish M. / Comparing Survival Outcomes and Costs Associated with Radical Cystectomy and Trimodal Therapy for Older Adults with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. In: JAMA Surgery. 2018 ; Vol. 153, No. 10. pp. 881-889.
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abstract = "Importance: Radical cystectomy is the guidelines-recommended treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but a resurgence of trimodal therapy has occurred. Limited comparative data are available on outcomes and costs attributable to these 2 treatments. Objective: To compare the survival outcomes and costs between trimodal therapy and radical cystectomy in older adults with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. A total of 3200 older adults (aged ≥66 years) with clinical stage T2 to T4a bladder cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, and with claims data available through December 31, 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients who received radical cystectomy underwent either only surgery or surgery in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who received trimodal therapy underwent transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Propensity score matching by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to March 11, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model. All Medicare health care costs for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services within 30, 90, and 180 days of treatment were compared. The total amount spent nationwide was estimated, using 180-day medical costs between treatments, by the total number of new cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States in 2011. Results: Of the 3200 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2048 (64.0{\%}) were men and 1152 (36.0{\%}) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 75.8 (6.0) years. After propensity score matching, 687 patients (21.5{\%}) underwent trimodal therapy and 687 patients (21.5{\%}) underwent radical cystectomy. Patients who underwent trimodal therapy had significantly decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95{\%} CI, 1.31-1.69) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.55; 95{\%} CI, 1.32-1.83). No differences in costs at 30 days were observed between trimodal therapy ($15 233 in 2002 vs $18 743 in 2011) and radical cystectomy ($17 990 in 2002 vs $21 738 in 2011). However, median total costs were significantly higher with trimodal therapy than with radical cystectomy at 90 days ($80174 vs $69181; median difference, $8964; Hodges-Lehmann 95{\%} CI, $3848-$14 079) and at 180 days ($179891 vs $107017; median difference, $63771; Hodges-Lehmann 95{\%} CI, $55512-$72 029). Extrapolating these figures to the total US population revealed $335 million in excess spending for trimodal therapy compared with the less costly radical cystectomy ($492 million) for patients who received a muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis in 2011. Conclusions and Relevance: Trimodal therapy was associated with significantly decreased overall survival and cancer-specific survival as well as $335 million in excess spending in 2011. These findings have important health policy implications regarding the appropriate use of high value-based care among older adults with invasive bladder cancer who are candidates for either radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy..",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparing Survival Outcomes and Costs Associated with Radical Cystectomy and Trimodal Therapy for Older Adults with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

AU - Williams, Stephen

AU - Shan, Yong

AU - Jazzar, Usama

AU - Mehta, Hemalkumar

AU - Baillargeon, Jacques

AU - Huo, Jinhai

AU - Senagore, Anthony J.

AU - Orihuela, Eduardo

AU - Tyler, Douglas

AU - Swanson, Todd

AU - Kamat, Ashish M.

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - Importance: Radical cystectomy is the guidelines-recommended treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but a resurgence of trimodal therapy has occurred. Limited comparative data are available on outcomes and costs attributable to these 2 treatments. Objective: To compare the survival outcomes and costs between trimodal therapy and radical cystectomy in older adults with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. A total of 3200 older adults (aged ≥66 years) with clinical stage T2 to T4a bladder cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, and with claims data available through December 31, 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients who received radical cystectomy underwent either only surgery or surgery in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who received trimodal therapy underwent transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Propensity score matching by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to March 11, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model. All Medicare health care costs for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services within 30, 90, and 180 days of treatment were compared. The total amount spent nationwide was estimated, using 180-day medical costs between treatments, by the total number of new cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States in 2011. Results: Of the 3200 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2048 (64.0%) were men and 1152 (36.0%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 75.8 (6.0) years. After propensity score matching, 687 patients (21.5%) underwent trimodal therapy and 687 patients (21.5%) underwent radical cystectomy. Patients who underwent trimodal therapy had significantly decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.31-1.69) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.83). No differences in costs at 30 days were observed between trimodal therapy ($15 233 in 2002 vs $18 743 in 2011) and radical cystectomy ($17 990 in 2002 vs $21 738 in 2011). However, median total costs were significantly higher with trimodal therapy than with radical cystectomy at 90 days ($80174 vs $69181; median difference, $8964; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $3848-$14 079) and at 180 days ($179891 vs $107017; median difference, $63771; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $55512-$72 029). Extrapolating these figures to the total US population revealed $335 million in excess spending for trimodal therapy compared with the less costly radical cystectomy ($492 million) for patients who received a muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis in 2011. Conclusions and Relevance: Trimodal therapy was associated with significantly decreased overall survival and cancer-specific survival as well as $335 million in excess spending in 2011. These findings have important health policy implications regarding the appropriate use of high value-based care among older adults with invasive bladder cancer who are candidates for either radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy..

AB - Importance: Radical cystectomy is the guidelines-recommended treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but a resurgence of trimodal therapy has occurred. Limited comparative data are available on outcomes and costs attributable to these 2 treatments. Objective: To compare the survival outcomes and costs between trimodal therapy and radical cystectomy in older adults with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. A total of 3200 older adults (aged ≥66 years) with clinical stage T2 to T4a bladder cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, and with claims data available through December 31, 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients who received radical cystectomy underwent either only surgery or surgery in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who received trimodal therapy underwent transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Propensity score matching by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to March 11, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model. All Medicare health care costs for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services within 30, 90, and 180 days of treatment were compared. The total amount spent nationwide was estimated, using 180-day medical costs between treatments, by the total number of new cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States in 2011. Results: Of the 3200 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2048 (64.0%) were men and 1152 (36.0%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 75.8 (6.0) years. After propensity score matching, 687 patients (21.5%) underwent trimodal therapy and 687 patients (21.5%) underwent radical cystectomy. Patients who underwent trimodal therapy had significantly decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.31-1.69) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.83). No differences in costs at 30 days were observed between trimodal therapy ($15 233 in 2002 vs $18 743 in 2011) and radical cystectomy ($17 990 in 2002 vs $21 738 in 2011). However, median total costs were significantly higher with trimodal therapy than with radical cystectomy at 90 days ($80174 vs $69181; median difference, $8964; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $3848-$14 079) and at 180 days ($179891 vs $107017; median difference, $63771; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $55512-$72 029). Extrapolating these figures to the total US population revealed $335 million in excess spending for trimodal therapy compared with the less costly radical cystectomy ($492 million) for patients who received a muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis in 2011. Conclusions and Relevance: Trimodal therapy was associated with significantly decreased overall survival and cancer-specific survival as well as $335 million in excess spending in 2011. These findings have important health policy implications regarding the appropriate use of high value-based care among older adults with invasive bladder cancer who are candidates for either radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy..

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