Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat

Nancy J. Millenbaugh, Johnathan L. Kiel, Kathy L. Ryan, Robert V. Blystone, John E. Kalns, Becky J. Brott, Cesario Z. Cerna, William S. Lawrence, Laura L. Soza, Patrick A. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electromagnetic fields at millimeter wave lengths are being developed for commercial and military use at power levels that can cause temperature increases in the skin. Previous work suggests that sustained exposure to millimeter waves causes greater heating of skin, leading to faster induction of circulatory failure than exposure to environmental heat (EH). We tested this hypothesis in three separate experiments by comparing temperature changes in skin, subcutis, and colon, and the time to reach circulatory collapse (mean arterial blood pressure, 20 mmHg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the following conditions that produced similar rates of body core heating within each experiment: (1) EH at 42°C, 35 GHz at 75 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; (2) EH at 43°C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; and (3) EH at 42°C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under isoflurane anesthesia. In all three experiments, the rate and amount of temperature increase at the subcutis and skin surface differed significantly in the rank order of 94 GHz more than 35 GHz more than EH. The time to reach circulatory collapse was significantly less only for rats exposed to 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm, the group with the greatest rate of skin and subcutis heating of all groups in this study, compared with both the 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm and the EH at 43°C groups. These data indicate that body core heating is the major determinant of induction of hemodynamic collapse, and the influence of heating of the skin and subcutis becomes significant only when a certain threshold rate of heating of these tissues is exceeded.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-632
Number of pages8
JournalShock
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Heating
Hot Temperature
Blood Pressure
Skin
Xylazine
Shock
Anesthesia
Ketamine
Temperature
Arterial Pressure
Electromagnetic Fields
Isoflurane
Environmental Exposure
Sprague Dawley Rats
Colon
Hemodynamics

Keywords

  • Hyperthermia
  • Microwaves
  • Nonionizing
  • Radio frequency radiation
  • Skin
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Physiology

Cite this

Millenbaugh, N. J., Kiel, J. L., Ryan, K. L., Blystone, R. V., Kalns, J. E., Brott, B. J., ... Mason, P. A. (2006). Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. Shock, 25(6), 625-632. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000209550.11087.fd

Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. / Millenbaugh, Nancy J.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Ryan, Kathy L.; Blystone, Robert V.; Kalns, John E.; Brott, Becky J.; Cerna, Cesario Z.; Lawrence, William S.; Soza, Laura L.; Mason, Patrick A.

In: Shock, Vol. 25, No. 6, 06.2006, p. 625-632.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Millenbaugh, NJ, Kiel, JL, Ryan, KL, Blystone, RV, Kalns, JE, Brott, BJ, Cerna, CZ, Lawrence, WS, Soza, LL & Mason, PA 2006, 'Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat', Shock, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 625-632. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000209550.11087.fd
Millenbaugh, Nancy J. ; Kiel, Johnathan L. ; Ryan, Kathy L. ; Blystone, Robert V. ; Kalns, John E. ; Brott, Becky J. ; Cerna, Cesario Z. ; Lawrence, William S. ; Soza, Laura L. ; Mason, Patrick A. / Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. In: Shock. 2006 ; Vol. 25, No. 6. pp. 625-632.
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