The association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) as risk factors for certain inflammatory diseases, viral infections, cancers, and transplant rejection have been the subject of recent studies. The SNPs-1082 G → A, -819 C → T, and -592 C → A, which have been associated with differential IL-10 production, are strongly linked with ethnicity. In this study, we determined the ethnic distribution of IL-10 promoter SNPs and their haplotype rates among Hispanics, African Americans, and Caucasians from Texas and Ashkenazi Jews from New York. Significant differences in prevalence rates of IL-10 SNPs (and their haplotype distribution) were found. African Americans and Hispanics have a lower rate of putative high-producer SNPs and a higher rate of low IL-10 producers when compared to Caucasians or Ashkenazi Jews. No statistically significant differences in allelic frequencies and haplotype rates were observed between Caucasians and Ashkenazi Jews. This study provides critical new information on the ethnic distribution of IL-10 promoter SNPs in a regional U.S. population and is the first to analyze the rate of SNPs in an unstudied ethnic population, Ashkenazi Jews. Knowledge of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms may prove useful in prediction of immunization responses, disease severity, and in the intelligent design of customized immunotherapy.
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