Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal

Abdourahmane Sow, Cheikh Loucoubar, Diawo Diallo, Oumar Faye, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Cheikh Saadibou Senghor, Anta Tal Dia, Ousmane Faye, Scott Weaver, Mawlouth Diallo, Denis Malvy, Amadou Alpha Sall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ≥40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMalaria Journal
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 28 2016

Fingerprint

Arbovirus Infections
Senegal
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Parasitic Diseases
Rift Valley fever virus
Arboviruses
Fever
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever
Infection
Congo
Disease Vectors
Dengue
Africa South of the Sahara
Diagnostic Errors
Signs and Symptoms
Immunoglobulin M
Parasites

Keywords

  • Arbovirus
  • Co-infection
  • Kedougou
  • Malaria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Parasitology

Cite this

Sow, A., Loucoubar, C., Diallo, D., Faye, O., Ndiaye, Y., Senghor, C. S., ... Sall, A. A. (Accepted/In press). Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. Malaria Journal. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1100-5

Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. / Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Youssoupha; Senghor, Cheikh Saadibou; Dia, Anta Tal; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott; Diallo, Mawlouth; Malvy, Denis; Sall, Amadou Alpha.

In: Malaria Journal, 28.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sow, A, Loucoubar, C, Diallo, D, Faye, O, Ndiaye, Y, Senghor, CS, Dia, AT, Faye, O, Weaver, S, Diallo, M, Malvy, D & Sall, AA 2016, 'Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal', Malaria Journal. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1100-5
Sow, Abdourahmane ; Loucoubar, Cheikh ; Diallo, Diawo ; Faye, Oumar ; Ndiaye, Youssoupha ; Senghor, Cheikh Saadibou ; Dia, Anta Tal ; Faye, Ousmane ; Weaver, Scott ; Diallo, Mawlouth ; Malvy, Denis ; Sall, Amadou Alpha. / Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. In: Malaria Journal. 2016.
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abstract = "Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 {\%} (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 {\%} (3/16), YFV 58.3 {\%} (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 {\%} (8/9), DENV 33.3 {\%} (1/3), and RVF 100 {\%} (1/1). Fever ≥40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.",
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AU - Loucoubar, Cheikh

AU - Diallo, Diawo

AU - Faye, Oumar

AU - Ndiaye, Youssoupha

AU - Senghor, Cheikh Saadibou

AU - Dia, Anta Tal

AU - Faye, Ousmane

AU - Weaver, Scott

AU - Diallo, Mawlouth

AU - Malvy, Denis

AU - Sall, Amadou Alpha

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N2 - Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ≥40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

AB - Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ≥40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

KW - Arbovirus

KW - Co-infection

KW - Kedougou

KW - Malaria

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