Confocal Imaging of Double-Stranded RNA and Pattern Recognition Receptors in Negative-Sense RNA Virus Infection

Elizabeth Mateer, Slobodan Paessler, Cheng Huang

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Double-stranded (ds) RNA is produced as a replicative intermediate during RNA virus infection. Recognition of dsRNA by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the retinoic acid (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA-5) leads to the induction of the innate immune response. The formation and intracellular distribution of dsRNA in positive-sense RNA virus infection has been well characterized by microscopy. Many negative-sense RNA viruses, including some arenaviruses, trigger the innate immune response during infection. However, negative-sense RNA viruses were thought to produce low levels of dsRNA, which hinders the imaging study of PRR recognition of viral dsRNA. Additionally, infection experiments with highly pathogenic arenaviruses must be performed in high containment biosafety level facilities (BSL-4). The interaction between viral RNA and PRRs for highly pathogenic RNA virus is largely unknown due to the additional technical challenges that researchers need to face in the BSL-4 facilities. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (Mab) (clone 9D5) originally used for pan-enterovirus detection has been found to specifically detect dsRNA with a higher sensitivity than the traditional J2 or K1 anti-dsRNA antibodies. Herein, by utilizing the 9D5 antibody, we describe a confocal microscopy protocol that has been used successfully to visualize dsRNA, viral protein and PRR simultaneously in individual cells infected by arenavirus. The protocol is also suitable for imaging studies of dsRNA and PRR distribution in pathogenic arenavirus infected cells in BSL4 facilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number143
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 26 2019

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RNA Virus Infections
Pattern Recognition Receptors
Arenavirus
Double-Stranded RNA
RNA
Viruses
Pattern recognition
RNA Viruses
Imaging techniques
Innate Immunity
Antibodies
Enterovirus
Confocal microscopy
Viral RNA
Viral Proteins
Infection
Tretinoin
Confocal Microscopy
Proteins
Microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

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title = "Confocal Imaging of Double-Stranded RNA and Pattern Recognition Receptors in Negative-Sense RNA Virus Infection",
abstract = "Double-stranded (ds) RNA is produced as a replicative intermediate during RNA virus infection. Recognition of dsRNA by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the retinoic acid (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA-5) leads to the induction of the innate immune response. The formation and intracellular distribution of dsRNA in positive-sense RNA virus infection has been well characterized by microscopy. Many negative-sense RNA viruses, including some arenaviruses, trigger the innate immune response during infection. However, negative-sense RNA viruses were thought to produce low levels of dsRNA, which hinders the imaging study of PRR recognition of viral dsRNA. Additionally, infection experiments with highly pathogenic arenaviruses must be performed in high containment biosafety level facilities (BSL-4). The interaction between viral RNA and PRRs for highly pathogenic RNA virus is largely unknown due to the additional technical challenges that researchers need to face in the BSL-4 facilities. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (Mab) (clone 9D5) originally used for pan-enterovirus detection has been found to specifically detect dsRNA with a higher sensitivity than the traditional J2 or K1 anti-dsRNA antibodies. Herein, by utilizing the 9D5 antibody, we describe a confocal microscopy protocol that has been used successfully to visualize dsRNA, viral protein and PRR simultaneously in individual cells infected by arenavirus. The protocol is also suitable for imaging studies of dsRNA and PRR distribution in pathogenic arenavirus infected cells in BSL4 facilities.",
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