Background:Long-stay nursing home (NH) residents are at high risk of having emergency department (ED) visits, but current knowledge regarding risk-adjusted ED rates is limited.Objectives:To construct and validate 3 quarterly risk-adjusted rates of long-stay residents' ED use: Any ED visit, ED visits without hospitalization or observation stay (outpatient ED), and potentially avoidable ED visits (PAED).Research Design:The authors calculated quarterly NH risk-adjusted ED rates from 2011 Q2 to 2013 Q3 national Medicare claims and Minimum Data Set data. Using random-effect linear regressions, the authors validated these rates against Nursing Home Compare overall 5-star quality ratings and examined their associations with hospitalization rates to provide a quality context.Subjects:Resident-quarter observations (7.3 million) from 15,235 unique NHs.Results:Risk-adjusted rates of any ED, outpatient ED, and PAED averaged 9.7%, 3.4%, and 3.2%, respectively. Compared with NHs with 1 or 2 stars overall rating, NHs with ≥3 stars were significantly associated with lower rates of any ED visit, outpatient ED, and PAED (β,-0.23%,-0.16%, and-0.11%, respectively; all P<0.01). Pearson Correlation coefficients between hospitalization rates and rates of any ED visit, outpatient ED, and PAED were 0.74, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively.Conclusions:The moderately negative associations of 5-star ratings with ED rates provide supportive evidence to their validity. Outpatient ED and PAED were moderately correlated to hospitalizations suggesting they provided more information about quality than any ED.
- emergency department visits
- long-stay resident
- Nursing Home Compare
- potentially avoidable emergency department visits
- risk adjustment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health