Craniofacial and mucopolysaccharide abnormalities in Kniest dysplasia

H. Friede, R. Matalon, V. Harris, I. M. Rosenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Serial roentgencephalograms of a male patient with Kniest dysplasia were obtained between 1 7/12 and 11 3/12 years of age and were analyzed and compared to cephalometric normative data. The patient displayed macrocephaly with increased size of the neurocranium in all three dimensions. The cranial base angle was significantly flattened, partly as a result of anterior displacement of the sella turcica. The odontoid process was short and wide. At 11 years of age there was bony fusion between the anterior arch of the atlas and the odontoid process as well as between the posterior arch of the atlas and the cranial base. The facial skeleton, including the nasal bones, infra-orbital rims, maxilla and mandible, was retropositioned relative to the anterior cranial base. The mandibular retrognathia was pronounced at an early age but improved with growth. At age 11 years the patient had a straight facial skeletal profile. Examination of the patient's 24-hour urinary excretion of keratan sulfate revealed values markedly elevated for his age. Three additional patients with Kniest dysplasia demonstrated similarly increased excretion of this glycosaminoglycan. The diagnosis of Kniest dysplasia can usually be made from roentgenograms of the extremities, the spine, and the pelvis. However, the morphologic characteristics of the head, as shown by cephalometric analysis, and the increased urinary excretion of keratan sulfate add confirmatory evidence useful in differential diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology


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