Craniofacial injuries due to golf cart trauma

Brandon L. Miller, Jennifer L. Waller, Brian J. McKinnon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective. To characterize craniofacial injuries due to golf cart trauma. Study Design. Case series with chart review. Setting. Level 1 trauma center. Subjects and Methods. A tertiary academic medical center's trauma database was queried for golf cart-related trauma from 2000 to 2009 and returned 68 patients. Data were obtained from the trauma database and by individually reviewing patient charts. Results. Of the 68 patients identified, 55% were male, with a median age of 13.4 years. Sixty-nine percent had head injuries, with 32% sustaining skull or facial fracture and 20.6% intracranial hemorrhage. The highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) by region was the head and neck. The average Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14.2, Injury Severity Score (ISS) 9.0, hospital stay 4.5 days, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay 2.8 days; 36.8% were admitted to the ICU. Ejection and rollover were the most common mechanisms of injury, with ejection having a significantly higher head and neck AIS compared with rollover and hitting a stationary object (P = .0055). Alcohol was detected in 59.2% of patients older than 16 years; the average blood alcohol concentration was 182.6 mg/dL. Children were involved 60.3% of the time, with an average age of 9.2 years, and children were passengers in the golf cart 69.2% of the time. Conclusions. Golf cart trauma can cause significant craniofacial injuries, particularly in the pediatric population and in adults who consume alcohol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)883-887
Number of pages5
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Craniofacial injury
  • Golf cart-related trauma
  • Low-speed vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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