Crosstalk of the IκB Kinase with Spliced X-Box Binding Protein 1 Couples Inflammation with Glucose Metabolic Reprogramming in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Yingxin Zhao, Jing Zhang, Hong Sun, Allan R. Brasier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway injury, repair, and structural remodeling. IκB kinase (IKK)-NFκB signaling regulates late EMT-associated gene expression. However, IKK-mediated mesenchymal transition occurs earlier than NFκB/RelA subunit-dependent EMT gene expression, leading us to investigate the hypothesis that IKK plays an independent mechanism in transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced EMT. Time-resolved dissection of early proteome and phosphoproteome changes in response to TGFβ and a specific IKK inhibitor, BMS-345541, revealed that IKK regulates cascades of 23 signaling pathways essential in EMT, including TGFβ signaling, p38 mitogen associate protein kinase (MAPK), Toll receptor signaling, and integrin pathways. We identified early IKK-dependent phosphorylation of core regulatory proteins in essential EMT signaling cassettes, including ATF2, JUN, NFKB1/p105, and others. Interestingly, we found that IKKβ directly complexes with and phosphorylates the spliced X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s). XBP1s is an arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), a pathway that mediates protein N-glycosylation and survival from ER stress-induced apoptosis in EMT. We found that inhibition of IKK activity abolishes the phosphorylation of XBP1-T48, blocks XBP1s nuclear translocation, and inhibits the activation of HBP. Our study elucidates a previously unrecognized IKKβ-XBP1s-HBP crosstalk pathway that couples inflammation and glucose metabolic reprogramming in ETM. Because XBP1-HBP controls N-glycosylation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in EMT, this novel IKKβ-XBP1-HBP pathway may contain therapeutic targets whose inhibition could prevent ECM remodeling in lung fibrosis or other airway remodeling diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3475-3488
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 2021

Keywords

  • IκB kinase-NFκB
  • N-glycosylation
  • epithelial−mesenchymal transition
  • extracellular matrix
  • hexosamine biosynthetic pathway
  • proteomics
  • unfolded protein response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Chemistry(all)

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