Cryptosporidium parvum Subtilisin-Like serine protease (SUB1) is crucial for parasite egress from host cells

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Abstract

Despite the severity and global burden of Cryptosporidium infection, treatments are less than optimal, and there is no effective vaccine. Egress from host cells is a key process for the completion of the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites. For Plasmodium species, subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1) is a key mediator of egress. For Toxoplasma species, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are critical. In this study, we characterized Cryptosporidium SUB1 expression and evaluated its effect using an infection model. We found increased expression between 12 and 20 h after in vitro infection, prior to egress. We induced silencing of SUB1 (ΔSUB1) mRNA using SUB1 single-stranded antisense RNA coupled with human Argonaute 2. Silencing of SUB1 mRNA expression did not affect parasite viability, excystation, or invasion of target cells. However, knockdown led to a 95% decrease in the proportion of released merozoites in vitro (P 0.0001). In contrast, silencing of CDPK5 had no effect on egress. Overall, our results indicate that SUB1 is a key mediator of Cryptosporidium egress and suggest that interruption of the life cycle at this stage may effectively inhibit the propagation of infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00784-18
JournalInfection and immunity
Volume87
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

Cryptosporidium parvum
Subtilisin
Serine Proteases
Cryptosporidium
Parasites
Infection
Life Cycle Stages
Merozoites
Antisense RNA
Messenger RNA
Plasmodium
Toxoplasma
Vaccines
In Vitro Techniques

Keywords

  • Calcium-dependent protein kinase
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Egress
  • Subtilisin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

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title = "Cryptosporidium parvum Subtilisin-Like serine protease (SUB1) is crucial for parasite egress from host cells",
abstract = "Despite the severity and global burden of Cryptosporidium infection, treatments are less than optimal, and there is no effective vaccine. Egress from host cells is a key process for the completion of the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites. For Plasmodium species, subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1) is a key mediator of egress. For Toxoplasma species, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are critical. In this study, we characterized Cryptosporidium SUB1 expression and evaluated its effect using an infection model. We found increased expression between 12 and 20 h after in vitro infection, prior to egress. We induced silencing of SUB1 (ΔSUB1) mRNA using SUB1 single-stranded antisense RNA coupled with human Argonaute 2. Silencing of SUB1 mRNA expression did not affect parasite viability, excystation, or invasion of target cells. However, knockdown led to a 95{\%} decrease in the proportion of released merozoites in vitro (P 0.0001). In contrast, silencing of CDPK5 had no effect on egress. Overall, our results indicate that SUB1 is a key mediator of Cryptosporidium egress and suggest that interruption of the life cycle at this stage may effectively inhibit the propagation of infection.",
keywords = "Calcium-dependent protein kinase, Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Egress, Subtilisin",
author = "Samantha Nava and White, {A. Clinton} and Alejandro Castellanos",
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T1 - Cryptosporidium parvum Subtilisin-Like serine protease (SUB1) is crucial for parasite egress from host cells

AU - Nava, Samantha

AU - White, A. Clinton

AU - Castellanos, Alejandro

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Despite the severity and global burden of Cryptosporidium infection, treatments are less than optimal, and there is no effective vaccine. Egress from host cells is a key process for the completion of the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites. For Plasmodium species, subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1) is a key mediator of egress. For Toxoplasma species, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are critical. In this study, we characterized Cryptosporidium SUB1 expression and evaluated its effect using an infection model. We found increased expression between 12 and 20 h after in vitro infection, prior to egress. We induced silencing of SUB1 (ΔSUB1) mRNA using SUB1 single-stranded antisense RNA coupled with human Argonaute 2. Silencing of SUB1 mRNA expression did not affect parasite viability, excystation, or invasion of target cells. However, knockdown led to a 95% decrease in the proportion of released merozoites in vitro (P 0.0001). In contrast, silencing of CDPK5 had no effect on egress. Overall, our results indicate that SUB1 is a key mediator of Cryptosporidium egress and suggest that interruption of the life cycle at this stage may effectively inhibit the propagation of infection.

AB - Despite the severity and global burden of Cryptosporidium infection, treatments are less than optimal, and there is no effective vaccine. Egress from host cells is a key process for the completion of the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites. For Plasmodium species, subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1) is a key mediator of egress. For Toxoplasma species, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are critical. In this study, we characterized Cryptosporidium SUB1 expression and evaluated its effect using an infection model. We found increased expression between 12 and 20 h after in vitro infection, prior to egress. We induced silencing of SUB1 (ΔSUB1) mRNA using SUB1 single-stranded antisense RNA coupled with human Argonaute 2. Silencing of SUB1 mRNA expression did not affect parasite viability, excystation, or invasion of target cells. However, knockdown led to a 95% decrease in the proportion of released merozoites in vitro (P 0.0001). In contrast, silencing of CDPK5 had no effect on egress. Overall, our results indicate that SUB1 is a key mediator of Cryptosporidium egress and suggest that interruption of the life cycle at this stage may effectively inhibit the propagation of infection.

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