Purpose: Mortality associated with acute Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in intensive care units (ICU) has remained high in patients suffering from hemodynamic instability. Prompt recognition and rapid assessment of bleeding severity are crucial to improve survival. Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is commonly used for early recognition of intravascular imbalances, but its effectiveness in predicting fluid responsiveness is often questioned. Echocardiography (echo) is a rapid, noninvasive method to repeatedly assess cardiac function and fluid responsiveness. This study investigated the impact of CVP and echo measurements on the outcomes of critically ill patients with GI hemorrhage. Methods: The study was based on the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV (MIMIC- IV) database. Patients were divided into four groups according to the usage of CVP and/or echo. The primary outcomes were 7-day, 14-day, 28-day, and overall mortalities after ICU admission. Cox Proportional-Hazards Models were used to elucidate the relationship between CVP/ Echo monitoring and mortality. The severity of illness of patients were adjusted by qSOFA score, SOFA score and base deficit level at admission. Results: Among 1705 eligible patients, 82 patients had both CVP and echo, 85 had CVP only, and 116 had Echo only. The results of survival analysis indicated that, comparing with those without either CVP or echo, the echo utilization was associated with improved mortalities at all time points during ICU stay for patients with moderate GI hemorrhage, and the combined use of CVP and echo was associated with lower 7-day,14-day and overall mortalities for patients with severe GI hemorrhage. Conclusion: Early usage of CVP and echo monitoring or echo alone are associated with lower mortality in the short and long-term when compared to patients without either measurement. Clinicians should consider goal-directed resuscitation guided by echo with/without CVP in patients with GI hemorrhage early after admission to ICU.
- central venous pressure
- gastrointestinal hemorrhage
- intensive care units
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine