Cytokine release syndrome: inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a solution for reducing COVID-19 mortality

Negar Moradian, Mahdi Gouravani, Mohammad Amin Salehi, Arash Heidari, Melika Shafeghat, Michael R. Hamblin, Nima Rezaei

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached pandemic proportions at the beginning of 2020 and continues to be a worldwide concern. End organ damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the leading causes of death in severely or critically ill patients. The elevated cytokine levels in severe patients in comparison with mildly affected patients suggest that cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurs in the severe form of the disease. In this paper, the significant role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and their mechanism of action in the CRS cascade is explained. Potential therapeutic approaches involving anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to fight COVID-19 and reduce mortality rate in severe cases are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-93
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Cytokine Network
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Corona virus
  • cytokine release syndrome
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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