Cytokines in human milk: properties and potential effects upon the mammary gland and the neonate.

A. S. Goldman, S. Chheda, Roberto Garofalo, F. C. Schmalstieg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Epidemiologic and immunologic studies of breastfed and nonbreastfed infants and investigations of certain biologic activities in human milk led to the identification of immunomodulating agents in human milk. Among them were the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta); IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, epithelial growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and TGF-beta 2. Interferon-gamma may originate from T cells in milk; EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta, M-CSF, IL-6, and IL-8 may be produced by mammary gland epithelium. Based upon their known functions, we hypothesize that cytokines influence the development and immunologic function of the mammary gland and the neonate. Those in vivo functions remain to be defined by future investigations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1996


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research

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