Purpose: Ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, and dapagliflozin, a sodium–glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitor, suppress the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The anti-inflammatory effects of dapagliflozin depend on AMPK activation. Also, ticagrelor can activate AMPK. We assessed whether dapagliflozin and ticagrelor have additive effects in attenuating the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in T2DM mice. Methods: Eight-week-old BTBR and wild-type mice received no drug, dapagliflozin (1.5 mg/kg/day), ticagrelor (100 mg/kg/day), or their combination for 12 weeks. Heart function was evaluated by echocardiography and heart tissue samples were assessed for fibrosis, apoptosis, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Results: Both drugs attenuated the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy as evident by improvements in left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction, which were further improved by the combination. Both drugs attenuated the activation of the NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and fibrosis. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than each drug alone on myocardial tissue necrotic factorα (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, suggesting additive effects. The combination had also a greater effect on ASC, collagen-1, and collagen-3 mRNA levels than each drug alone. While both drugs activated adenosine mono-phosphate kinase (AMPK), only dapagliflozin activated mTOR and increased RICTOR levels. Moreover, only dapagliflozin decreased myocardial BNP and Caspase-1 mRNA levels, and the effects of dapagliflozin on NLRP3 and collagen-3 mRNA levels were significantly greater than those of ticagrelor. Conclusions: Both dapagliflozin and ticagrelor attenuated the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and fibrosis in BTBR mice with additive effects of the combination. While both dapagliflozin and ticagrelor activated AMPK, only dapagliflozin activated mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in hearts of BTBR mice.
- Diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Pharmacology (medical)