Demographic and Regional Trends of Infective Endocarditis-Related Mortality in the United States, 1999 to 2019

Ali Agha, Salik Nazir, Abdul M.K. Minhas, Waleed Kayani, Rochell Issa, George V. Moukarbel, Abe DeAnda, Peter Cram, Hani Jneid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We sought to identify temporal, geographic, age and sex-based mortality trends of IE in the US over the past 2 decades. This population-based study utilized the CDC WONDER database to identify IE-related deaths occurring within the US between 1999 and 2019. IE-related crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (CMRs and AAMRs, respectively) were determined. Joinpoint regression was used to determine trends in CMR/AAMR using annual percent change (APC) in the overall sample in addition to demographic (sex, race/ethnicity, age) and geographic (rural/urban, statewide) subgroups. Between 1999 and 2019, a total of 279,154 deaths related to IE were reported. The overall AAMR declined from 54.2/1,000,000 in 1999 to 51.4 in 2019. However, AAMRs increased among several sub-groups over the past decade including men [2009-2019 APC = 0.4%, 95%CI, 0.1%-0.6%], non-Hispanic (NH) whites [APC of 0.8% from 2009 to 2019 (95%CI 0.5%-1.1%)], NH American Indians or Alaskan Natives [APC of 1.4% during the study period (95%CI, 0.7%-2.0%)], and those in rural areas [APC of 1.0% from 2009 to 2019 (95%CI 0.5%-1.5%)]. The CMRs increased among subjects 40-64 years old [APC of 2.8% from 2010 to 2019 (95%CI 2.2%-3.5%)] and 15-39 years old [APC of 16.4% from 2010 to 2017 (95%CI 13.5%-19.4%)]. IE-related CMR/AAMR increased among men, NH whites, NH American Indian or Alaskan Natives, those <65-year-old, and those from rural areas. Discerning the reasons for the increase in IE-related mortality among these groups and examining the impact of the social determinants of health may represent important opportunities to enhance care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101397
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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