Depressive symptoms and mortality in older Mexican Americans

Sandra A. Black, Kyriakos Markides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

105 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: We examined the prevalence of comorbid depressive symptomatology and leading chronic medical conditions, and their influence on death rates in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) were used. Differences in death rates across sociodemographics, self-ratings of health, and health conditions were examined with analysis of variance statistics. Logistic regression models were used to examine main effects and interaction effects of each medical condition separately and in conjunction with depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses indicated that death rates were substantially higher when a high level of depressive symptoms was comorbid with diabetes (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 2.55-5.78), cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.36-6.91), hypertension (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.57-3.27), stroke (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.44-6.15), and cancer (OR = 4.46, 95% CI = 2.48-8.01). Multivariate analyses indicated a synergistic effect for comorbid diabetes and depressive symptoms such that the odds of having died among diabetics with high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 2.67-6.11) were three times that of diabetics without high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.89-2.06). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of depressive symptoms concomitant with major chronic medical conditions elevate the risk for death among older Mexican Americans. Given the fact that depression is often unrecognized and undertreated in the elderly, awareness of the potential for loss of life as well as the potential for treatment may help to improve this situation not only for older Mexican Americans, but for older adults in general.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-52
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1999

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Depression
Mortality
Logistic Models
Health
Hispanic Americans
Epidemiologic Studies
Analysis of Variance
Cardiovascular Diseases
Multivariate Analysis
Stroke
Hypertension
Population
Neoplasms
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Chronic Disease
  • Death Rates
  • Depressive Symptoms
  • Mexican Americans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Depressive symptoms and mortality in older Mexican Americans. / Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos.

In: Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 01.1999, p. 45-52.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "PURPOSE: We examined the prevalence of comorbid depressive symptomatology and leading chronic medical conditions, and their influence on death rates in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) were used. Differences in death rates across sociodemographics, self-ratings of health, and health conditions were examined with analysis of variance statistics. Logistic regression models were used to examine main effects and interaction effects of each medical condition separately and in conjunction with depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses indicated that death rates were substantially higher when a high level of depressive symptoms was comorbid with diabetes (OR = 3.84, 95{\%} CI = 2.55-5.78), cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.04, 95{\%} CI = 2.36-6.91), hypertension (OR = 2.27, 95{\%} CI = 1.57-3.27), stroke (OR = 3.00, 95{\%} CI = 1.44-6.15), and cancer (OR = 4.46, 95{\%} CI = 2.48-8.01). Multivariate analyses indicated a synergistic effect for comorbid diabetes and depressive symptoms such that the odds of having died among diabetics with high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 4.03, 95{\%} CI = 2.67-6.11) were three times that of diabetics without high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.36, 95{\%} CI = 0.89-2.06). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of depressive symptoms concomitant with major chronic medical conditions elevate the risk for death among older Mexican Americans. Given the fact that depression is often unrecognized and undertreated in the elderly, awareness of the potential for loss of life as well as the potential for treatment may help to improve this situation not only for older Mexican Americans, but for older adults in general.",
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AB - PURPOSE: We examined the prevalence of comorbid depressive symptomatology and leading chronic medical conditions, and their influence on death rates in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) were used. Differences in death rates across sociodemographics, self-ratings of health, and health conditions were examined with analysis of variance statistics. Logistic regression models were used to examine main effects and interaction effects of each medical condition separately and in conjunction with depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses indicated that death rates were substantially higher when a high level of depressive symptoms was comorbid with diabetes (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 2.55-5.78), cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.36-6.91), hypertension (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.57-3.27), stroke (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.44-6.15), and cancer (OR = 4.46, 95% CI = 2.48-8.01). Multivariate analyses indicated a synergistic effect for comorbid diabetes and depressive symptoms such that the odds of having died among diabetics with high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 2.67-6.11) were three times that of diabetics without high levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.89-2.06). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of depressive symptoms concomitant with major chronic medical conditions elevate the risk for death among older Mexican Americans. Given the fact that depression is often unrecognized and undertreated in the elderly, awareness of the potential for loss of life as well as the potential for treatment may help to improve this situation not only for older Mexican Americans, but for older adults in general.

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