Differential immune responses to hemorrhagic Fever-Causing arenaviruses

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The family Arenaviridae contains several pathogens of major clinical importance. The Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa virus is endemic in West Africa and is estimated to cause up to 300,000 infections each year. The New World (NW) arenaviruses Junín and Machupo periodically cause hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in South America. While these arenaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans, recent evidence indicates that pathogenic OW and NW arenaviruses interact with the host immune system differently, which may have differential impacts on viral pathogenesis. Severe Lassa fever cases are characterized by profound immunosuppression. In contrast, pathogenic NW arenavirus infections are accompanied by elevated levels of Type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review aims to summarize recent findings about interactions of these pathogenic arenaviruses with the innate immune machinery and the subsequent effects on adaptive immunity, which may inform the development of vaccines and therapeutics against arenavirus infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number138
JournalVaccines
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2019

Fingerprint

New World Arenaviruses
Arenavirus
Arenaviridae Infections
Fever
Old World Arenaviruses
Arenaviridae
Lassa Fever
Lassa virus
Interferon Type I
Western Africa
South America
Adaptive Immunity
Immunosuppression
Disease Outbreaks
Immune System
Vaccines
Cytokines
Infection
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Arenavirus
  • Hemorrhagic fever
  • Immunity
  • Innate sensing
  • Interferon
  • Junín virus
  • Lassa virus
  • Machupo virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Differential immune responses to hemorrhagic Fever-Causing arenaviruses. / Mantlo, Emily; Paessler, Slobodan; Huang, Cheng.

In: Vaccines, Vol. 7, No. 4, 138, 12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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