Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 play a key role in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) entry into CD4+ monocytic cells. Alteration in the expression levels of these receptors by immunoregulatory cytokines may influence viral entry and hence susceptibility to HIV infection, viral tropism, and disease progression. Helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which share a subunit of their receptor components and exhibit similar biological effects, have been shown to play a key role in HIV infection and disease progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-4 and IL-13 on the expression of CXCR4 and CCR5, and the biological implications of alteration of CXCR4 and CCR5 regulation on monocytic cells with respect to their migration in response to chemokines, HIV entry, and its replication. The results suggest that both IL-4 and IL-13 inhibited the expression of CXCR4, in contrast to CCR5, which was inhibited by IL-13 alone. The downregulation of CXCR4 and CCR5 was correspondingly associated with the inhibition of their respective ligand-induced chemotaxis. Although IL-13 inhibited the expression of both CXCR4 and CCR5, this downregulation of chemokine receptor expression was not sufficient to prevent virus entry. Furthermore, both IL-4 and IL-13 inhibited viral replication in monocytic cells, suggesting that inhibition of chemokine receptor expression per se by these cytokines may not be sufficient to prevent virus entry, and indicating these cytokines may be inhibiting viral replication by targeting pathways subsequent to virus entry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine