Administration of γ-linolenic acid suppresses active synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We therefore examined the effects of γ-linolenic acid and its first metabolite, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, on protein kinase C, a key element in transduction of signals from cell surface to nucleus. We report here that γ-linolenic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid suppress total protein kinase C activity, but facilitate translocation of protein kinase C activity from cytosol to membrane in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid do not influence total protein kinase C activity and have only modest effects on enzyme translocation. These findings in whole cells are in contrast to results of experiments performed with isolated protein kinase C, in which unsaturated fatty acids uniformly enhance protein kinase C activity. The differential effects of unsaturated fatty acids underscore the complexity of protein kinase C regulation and indicate that γ-linolenic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids influence T lymphocyte protein kinase C metabolism in a manner that is unique among unsaturated fatty acid precursors of eicosanoids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine