Digital Biomarkers of Gait and Balance in Diabetic Foot, Measurable by Wearable Inertial Measurement Units: A Mini Review

Gu Eon Kang, Angeloh Stout, Ke’Vaughn Waldon, Seungmin Kang, Amanda L. Killeen, Peter A. Crisologo, Michael Siah, Daniel Jupiter, Bijan Najafi, Ashkan Vaziri, Lawrence A. Lavery

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

People with diabetic foot frequently exhibit gait and balance dysfunction. Recent advances in wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) enable to assess some of the gait and balance dysfunction associated with diabetic foot (i.e., digital biomarkers of gait and balance). However, there is no review to inform digital biomarkers of gait and balance dysfunction related to diabetic foot, measurable by wearable IMUs (e.g., what gait and balance parameters can wearable IMUs collect? Are the measurements repeatable?). Accordingly, we conducted a web-based, mini review using PubMed. Our search was limited to human subjects and English-written papers published in peer-reviewed journals. We identified 20 papers in this mini review. We found preliminary evidence of digital biomarkers of gait and balance dysfunction in people with diabetic foot, such as slow gait speed, large gait variability, unstable gait initiation, and large body sway. However, due to heterogeneities in included papers in terms of study design, movement tasks, and small sample size, more studies are recommended to confirm this preliminary evidence. Additionally, based on our mini review, we recommend establishing appropriate strategies to successfully incorporate wearable-based assessment into clinical practice for diabetic foot care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9278
JournalSensors
Volume22
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • diabetic foot
  • diabetic neuropathies
  • digital technology
  • foot ulcer
  • gait
  • inertial measurement unit
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • postural balance
  • walking
  • wearable electronic devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry

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