Disintegrin, hemorrhagic, and proteolytic activities of Mohave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venoms lacking Mojave toxin

Elda E. Sánchez, Jacob A. Galán, Randy L. Powell, Steven R. Reyes, Julio G. Soto, William Russell, David H. Russell, John C. Pérez

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32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Venom from the Mohave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, has been reported to be either: (1) neurotoxic; (2) hemorrhagic, or both (3) neurotoxic and hemorrhagic. In this study, 14 Mohave rattlesnakes from Arizona and Texas (USA) were analyzed for the presence of disintegrins and Mojave toxin. All venom samples were analyzed for the presence of hemorrhagic, proteolytic and disintegrin activities. The venoms were each chromatographed by reverse phase and their fractions tested for disintegrin activity. All specimens containing Mojave toxin were the most toxic and lacked proteolytic, hemorrhagic and disintegrin activities. In contrast, the venoms containing these activities lacked Mojave toxin. Two disintegrin genes, scutustatin and mojavestatin, were identified by PCR of genomic sequences. Scutustatin is a highly conserved disintegrin, while mojavestatin shows low conservation to other known disintegrins. Venoms with the highest LD50 measurements lacked both disintegrin genes, while the specimens with intermediate and low LD50 contained both genes. The intermediate LD50 group contained Mojave toxin and both disintegrin genes, but lacked hemorrhagic and disintegrin activity. Our results raise the possibility that scutustatin and mojavestatin are not expressed in the intermediate LD50 group, or that they may not be the same disintegrins responsible for the disintegrin activity found in the venom. Therefore, it is possible that Mohave rattlesnakes may produce more than two disintegrins.

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Keywords

  • Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus
  • Disintegrins
  • Geographic Variation
  • Hemorrhagic activity
  • Mohave venom
  • Mojave toxins
  • Mojavestatin'
  • Scutustatin
  • Venom lethal dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pharmacology

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