Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and variable degrees of inflammation and necrosis depending upon the genetic background. Utilizing C. rodentium-induced TMCH in C3H/HeNHsd inbred mice, we observed significant crypt hyperplasia on days 3 and 7 preceding active colitis. NF-κB activity in the crypt-denuded lamina propria (CLP) increased within 24 h postinfection, followed by its activation in the crypts at day 3, which peaked by day 7. Increases in interleukin-α1 (IL-1α), IL-12(p40), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) paralleled NF-κB activation, while increases in IL-1α/β, IL-6/IL-12(p40)/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and MIP-1α followed NF-κB activation leading to significant recruitment of neutrophils to the colonic mucosa and increased colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Phosphorylation of the crypt cellular and nuclear p65 subunit at serines 276 and 536 led to functional NF-κB activation that facilitated expression of its downstream target, CXCL-1/KC, during TMCH. Distinct compartmentalization of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 ([ERK1/2] Thr 180/Tyr 182) and p38 (Thr 202/Tyr 204) in the CLP preceded increases in the crypts. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 suppressed NF-κB activity in both crypts and the CLP. Dietary administration of 6% pectin or 4% curcumin in C. rodentiuminfected mice also inhibited NF-κB activity and blocked CD3, F4/80, IL-1α/β, G-CSF/MCP-1/KC, and MPO activity in the CLP while not affecting NF-κB activity in the crypts. Thus, distinct compartmentalization of NF-κB activity in the crypts and the CLP regulates crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis, and dietary intervention may be a novel strategy to modulate NF-κB-dependent protective immunity to facilitate crypt regeneration following C. rodentium-induced pathogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases