|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Tropical Infectious Diseases|
|Number of pages||14|
|State||Published - 2006|
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Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter
TY - CHAP
T1 - Distinguishing Tropical Infectious Diseases from Bioterrorism
AU - Olano, Juan P.
AU - Peters, C. J.
AU - Walker, David H.
N1 - Funding Information: An increasing number of public health departments are now acquiring the technology necessary to perform syndromic surveillance. This new method of surveillance is based on syndromic disease rates such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological syndromes or analysis of other health-related activities such as laboratory test requests and results, purchasing rates for certain pharmaceutical agents, unexplained death rates, and veterinary surveillance. 2, 10, 11 The purpose of syndromic surveillance is to detect a BT attack as early as possible by analyzing the previously mentioned variables by extracting and analyzing data through computer networks. The rationale behind syndromic surveillance is the nonspecific nature of early signs and symptoms of many of the illnesses caused by BT agents. Examples of proposed syndromes are as follows: gastroenteritis of any apparent infectious etiology, pneumonia with the sudden death of a previously healthy adult, widened mediastinum in a febrile patient, acute neurologic illness with fever, and advancing cranial nerve impairment with weakness. 12 A key component of this system is the continuous analysis of health-care variables to establish thresholds for all variables being analyzed. It is worth mentioning that one of the first flags raised by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic in its early stages in the United States was the increased number of orders for pentamidine from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to treat several patients in California for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. As of May 2003, syndromic surveillance systems had been established in approximately 100 sites. One of the best known systems is the so-called Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE II) being developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Biophysics Laboratory. 12 This project is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for use in the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System. The first system developed (ESSENCE I) is already in use at all U.S. military treatment facilities. 12 ESSENCE II uses the following syndromes for analysis: respiratory, gastrointestinal, fever, dermatological hemorrhagic, dermatological infectious, neurological, and coma.
PY - 2006
Y1 - 2006
UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84882537155&partnerID=8YFLogxK
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U2 - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50124-1
DO - 10.1016/B978-0-443-06668-9.50124-1
M3 - Chapter
AN - SCOPUS:84882537155
SN - 9780443066689
VL - 2
SP - 1386
EP - 1399
BT - Tropical Infectious Diseases
PB - Elsevier Inc.