Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges? An Experimental Model in Rabbits

Isabela Leite Ferraz, Guilherme Antônio Moreira De Barros, Patricia Gomes Ferreira Neto, Daneshivari Solanki, Mariângela Alencar Marques, Vânia Maria De Vasconcelos MacHado, Lucas Wynne Cabral, Rodrigo Moreira E Lima, Pedro Thadeu Galvaõ Vianna, Lais Helena Camacho Navarro, Eliana Marisa Ganen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Objectives Although there is no documented evidence that tattoo pigments can cause neurological complications, the implications of performing neuraxial anesthesia through tattooed skin are unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether spinal puncture performed through tattooed skin of rabbits determines changes over the spinal cord and meninges. In addition, we sought to evaluate the presence of ink fragments entrapped in spinal needles. Methods Thirty-six young male adult rabbits, each weighing between 3400 and 3900 g and having a spine length between 38.5 and 39 cm, were divided by lot into 3 groups as follows: GI, spinal puncture through tattooed skin; GII, spinal puncture through tattooed skin and saline injection; and GIII, spinal puncture through skin free of tattoo and saline injection. After intravenous anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the subarachnoid space was punctured at S1-S2 under ultrasound guidance with a 22-gauge 2 1/2 Quincke needle. Animals in GII and GIII received 5 μL/cm of spinal length (0.2 mL) of saline intrathecally. In GI, the needle tip was placed into the yellow ligament, and no solution was injected into the intrathecal space; after tattooed skin puncture, 1 mL of saline was injected through the needle over a histological slide to prepare a smear that was dyed by the Giemsa method to enable tissue identification if present. All animals remained in captivity for 21 days under medical observation and were killed by decapitation. The lumbosacral spinal cord portion was removed for histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Results None of the animals had impaired motor function or decreased nociception during the period of clinical observation. None of the animals from the control group (GIII) showed signs of injuries to meninges. In GII, however, 4 animals presented with signs of meningeal injury. The main histological changes observed were focal areas of perivascular lymphoplasmacyte infiltration in the pia mater and arachnoid. There was no signal of injury in neural tissue in any animal of both groups. Tissue coring containing ink pigments was noted in all GI smears from the spinal needles used to puncture the tattooed skin. Conclusions On the basis of the present results, intrathecal injection of saline through a needle inserted through tattooed skin is capable of producing histological changes over the meninges of rabbits. Ink fragments were entrapped inside the spinal needles, despite the presence of a stylet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)533-538
Number of pages6
JournalRegional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 3 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nerve Tissue
Meninges
Theoretical Models
Needles
Rabbits
Skin
Spinal Puncture
Ink
Punctures
Spinal Cord
Wounds and Injuries
Pia Mater
Observation
Arachnoid
Xylazine
Decapitation
Spinal Injections
Intravenous Anesthesia
Subarachnoid Space
Injections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Ferraz, I. L., Barros, G. A. M. D., Ferreira Neto, P. G., Solanki, D., Marques, M. A., MacHado, V. M. D. V., ... Ganen, E. M. (2015). Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges? An Experimental Model in Rabbits. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 40(5), 533-538. https://doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0000000000000282

Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges? An Experimental Model in Rabbits. / Ferraz, Isabela Leite; Barros, Guilherme Antônio Moreira De; Ferreira Neto, Patricia Gomes; Solanki, Daneshivari; Marques, Mariângela Alencar; MacHado, Vânia Maria De Vasconcelos; Cabral, Lucas Wynne; Lima, Rodrigo Moreira E; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvaõ; Navarro, Lais Helena Camacho; Ganen, Eliana Marisa.

In: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 5, 03.09.2015, p. 533-538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferraz, IL, Barros, GAMD, Ferreira Neto, PG, Solanki, D, Marques, MA, MacHado, VMDV, Cabral, LW, Lima, RME, Vianna, PTG, Navarro, LHC & Ganen, EM 2015, 'Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges? An Experimental Model in Rabbits', Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 533-538. https://doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0000000000000282
Ferraz, Isabela Leite ; Barros, Guilherme Antônio Moreira De ; Ferreira Neto, Patricia Gomes ; Solanki, Daneshivari ; Marques, Mariângela Alencar ; MacHado, Vânia Maria De Vasconcelos ; Cabral, Lucas Wynne ; Lima, Rodrigo Moreira E ; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvaõ ; Navarro, Lais Helena Camacho ; Ganen, Eliana Marisa. / Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges? An Experimental Model in Rabbits. In: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 40, No. 5. pp. 533-538.
@article{4aaacffe342b425f8ccd81d9fe8b7de4,
title = "Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges?: An Experimental Model in Rabbits",
abstract = "Background and Objectives Although there is no documented evidence that tattoo pigments can cause neurological complications, the implications of performing neuraxial anesthesia through tattooed skin are unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether spinal puncture performed through tattooed skin of rabbits determines changes over the spinal cord and meninges. In addition, we sought to evaluate the presence of ink fragments entrapped in spinal needles. Methods Thirty-six young male adult rabbits, each weighing between 3400 and 3900 g and having a spine length between 38.5 and 39 cm, were divided by lot into 3 groups as follows: GI, spinal puncture through tattooed skin; GII, spinal puncture through tattooed skin and saline injection; and GIII, spinal puncture through skin free of tattoo and saline injection. After intravenous anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the subarachnoid space was punctured at S1-S2 under ultrasound guidance with a 22-gauge 2 1/2 Quincke needle. Animals in GII and GIII received 5 μL/cm of spinal length (0.2 mL) of saline intrathecally. In GI, the needle tip was placed into the yellow ligament, and no solution was injected into the intrathecal space; after tattooed skin puncture, 1 mL of saline was injected through the needle over a histological slide to prepare a smear that was dyed by the Giemsa method to enable tissue identification if present. All animals remained in captivity for 21 days under medical observation and were killed by decapitation. The lumbosacral spinal cord portion was removed for histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Results None of the animals had impaired motor function or decreased nociception during the period of clinical observation. None of the animals from the control group (GIII) showed signs of injuries to meninges. In GII, however, 4 animals presented with signs of meningeal injury. The main histological changes observed were focal areas of perivascular lymphoplasmacyte infiltration in the pia mater and arachnoid. There was no signal of injury in neural tissue in any animal of both groups. Tissue coring containing ink pigments was noted in all GI smears from the spinal needles used to puncture the tattooed skin. Conclusions On the basis of the present results, intrathecal injection of saline through a needle inserted through tattooed skin is capable of producing histological changes over the meninges of rabbits. Ink fragments were entrapped inside the spinal needles, despite the presence of a stylet.",
author = "Ferraz, {Isabela Leite} and Barros, {Guilherme Ant{\^o}nio Moreira De} and {Ferreira Neto}, {Patricia Gomes} and Daneshivari Solanki and Marques, {Mari{\^a}ngela Alencar} and MacHado, {V{\^a}nia Maria De Vasconcelos} and Cabral, {Lucas Wynne} and Lima, {Rodrigo Moreira E} and Vianna, {Pedro Thadeu Galva{\~o}} and Navarro, {Lais Helena Camacho} and Ganen, {Eliana Marisa}",
year = "2015",
month = "9",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1097/AAP.0000000000000282",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "533--538",
journal = "Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine",
issn = "0146-521X",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Does Spinal Block Through Tattooed Skin Cause Histological Changes in Nervous Tissue and Meninges?

T2 - An Experimental Model in Rabbits

AU - Ferraz, Isabela Leite

AU - Barros, Guilherme Antônio Moreira De

AU - Ferreira Neto, Patricia Gomes

AU - Solanki, Daneshivari

AU - Marques, Mariângela Alencar

AU - MacHado, Vânia Maria De Vasconcelos

AU - Cabral, Lucas Wynne

AU - Lima, Rodrigo Moreira E

AU - Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvaõ

AU - Navarro, Lais Helena Camacho

AU - Ganen, Eliana Marisa

PY - 2015/9/3

Y1 - 2015/9/3

N2 - Background and Objectives Although there is no documented evidence that tattoo pigments can cause neurological complications, the implications of performing neuraxial anesthesia through tattooed skin are unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether spinal puncture performed through tattooed skin of rabbits determines changes over the spinal cord and meninges. In addition, we sought to evaluate the presence of ink fragments entrapped in spinal needles. Methods Thirty-six young male adult rabbits, each weighing between 3400 and 3900 g and having a spine length between 38.5 and 39 cm, were divided by lot into 3 groups as follows: GI, spinal puncture through tattooed skin; GII, spinal puncture through tattooed skin and saline injection; and GIII, spinal puncture through skin free of tattoo and saline injection. After intravenous anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the subarachnoid space was punctured at S1-S2 under ultrasound guidance with a 22-gauge 2 1/2 Quincke needle. Animals in GII and GIII received 5 μL/cm of spinal length (0.2 mL) of saline intrathecally. In GI, the needle tip was placed into the yellow ligament, and no solution was injected into the intrathecal space; after tattooed skin puncture, 1 mL of saline was injected through the needle over a histological slide to prepare a smear that was dyed by the Giemsa method to enable tissue identification if present. All animals remained in captivity for 21 days under medical observation and were killed by decapitation. The lumbosacral spinal cord portion was removed for histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Results None of the animals had impaired motor function or decreased nociception during the period of clinical observation. None of the animals from the control group (GIII) showed signs of injuries to meninges. In GII, however, 4 animals presented with signs of meningeal injury. The main histological changes observed were focal areas of perivascular lymphoplasmacyte infiltration in the pia mater and arachnoid. There was no signal of injury in neural tissue in any animal of both groups. Tissue coring containing ink pigments was noted in all GI smears from the spinal needles used to puncture the tattooed skin. Conclusions On the basis of the present results, intrathecal injection of saline through a needle inserted through tattooed skin is capable of producing histological changes over the meninges of rabbits. Ink fragments were entrapped inside the spinal needles, despite the presence of a stylet.

AB - Background and Objectives Although there is no documented evidence that tattoo pigments can cause neurological complications, the implications of performing neuraxial anesthesia through tattooed skin are unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether spinal puncture performed through tattooed skin of rabbits determines changes over the spinal cord and meninges. In addition, we sought to evaluate the presence of ink fragments entrapped in spinal needles. Methods Thirty-six young male adult rabbits, each weighing between 3400 and 3900 g and having a spine length between 38.5 and 39 cm, were divided by lot into 3 groups as follows: GI, spinal puncture through tattooed skin; GII, spinal puncture through tattooed skin and saline injection; and GIII, spinal puncture through skin free of tattoo and saline injection. After intravenous anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the subarachnoid space was punctured at S1-S2 under ultrasound guidance with a 22-gauge 2 1/2 Quincke needle. Animals in GII and GIII received 5 μL/cm of spinal length (0.2 mL) of saline intrathecally. In GI, the needle tip was placed into the yellow ligament, and no solution was injected into the intrathecal space; after tattooed skin puncture, 1 mL of saline was injected through the needle over a histological slide to prepare a smear that was dyed by the Giemsa method to enable tissue identification if present. All animals remained in captivity for 21 days under medical observation and were killed by decapitation. The lumbosacral spinal cord portion was removed for histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Results None of the animals had impaired motor function or decreased nociception during the period of clinical observation. None of the animals from the control group (GIII) showed signs of injuries to meninges. In GII, however, 4 animals presented with signs of meningeal injury. The main histological changes observed were focal areas of perivascular lymphoplasmacyte infiltration in the pia mater and arachnoid. There was no signal of injury in neural tissue in any animal of both groups. Tissue coring containing ink pigments was noted in all GI smears from the spinal needles used to puncture the tattooed skin. Conclusions On the basis of the present results, intrathecal injection of saline through a needle inserted through tattooed skin is capable of producing histological changes over the meninges of rabbits. Ink fragments were entrapped inside the spinal needles, despite the presence of a stylet.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940665586&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940665586&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000282

DO - 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000282

M3 - Article

C2 - 26222345

AN - SCOPUS:84940665586

VL - 40

SP - 533

EP - 538

JO - Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

JF - Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

SN - 0146-521X

IS - 5

ER -