Double blockade of cell cycle at G1-S transition and M phase by 3-iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester, a new type of tubulin ligand

Jian Dong Jiang, Larry Denner, Yi He Ling, Jian Nong Li, Ashley Davis, Yue Wang, Yan Li, Julia Roboz, Long Gui Wang, Roman Perez-Soler, Marco Marcelli, George Bekesi, James F. Holland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


3-Iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester (3-IAABE) is a new compound synthesized in our laboratory. The primary action of 3-IAABE is to inhibit microtubule assembly by interacting with -SH groups on tubulin. In contrast to other known microtubule disrupters, 3-IAABE caused a double blockade in the cell cycle at G1-S transition and in M phase. The blockade was determined by cell cycle analysis and chromosome distribution. Kinase activities of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 responsible for the G1-S transition were increased, as were the activities of mitotic cyclin B and cdc2. 3-IAABE treatment also increased p53 expression and dephosphorylated (or activated) retinoblastoma protein. Investigation of the signal transduction pathway showed that 3-IAABE induced bcl-2 phosphorylation, followed by activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6, but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the downstream substrates of caspase-3 and -6, were cleaved after 3 h of exposure to 3-IAABE, followed by DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of caspase-9, -3, or -6, respectively, inhibited the cleavage of DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and thus inhibited the onset of apoptosis. 3-IAABE showed antitumor activities in the panel of 60 National Cancer Institute human tumor cell lines with total growth inhibition in the range of 0.22-4.3 μM for solid tumor lines and 0.025-0.22 μM for leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. The 3-IAABU total growth inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated healthy human lymphocytes was 450-fold greater than that of leukemic cells. 3-IAABE significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocarcinoma (BEL-7402) in nude mice by 72% in tumor volume, more strongly than did vincristine (43% inhibition). Besides being a novel lead for the design of new anticancer tubulin ligands, the activity of 3-IAABE in the cell cycle may also help us to understand the molecular pharmacology of microtubule-active drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6080-6088
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Research
Issue number21
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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