3-Iodoacetamido benzoyl ethyl ester (3-IAABE) is a new compound synthesized in our laboratory. The primary action of 3-IAABE is to inhibit microtubule assembly by interacting with -SH groups on tubulin. In contrast to other known microtubule disrupters, 3-IAABE caused a double blockade in the cell cycle at G1-S transition and in M phase. The blockade was determined by cell cycle analysis and chromosome distribution. Kinase activities of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 responsible for the G1-S transition were increased, as were the activities of mitotic cyclin B and cdc2. 3-IAABE treatment also increased p53 expression and dephosphorylated (or activated) retinoblastoma protein. Investigation of the signal transduction pathway showed that 3-IAABE induced bcl-2 phosphorylation, followed by activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6, but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the downstream substrates of caspase-3 and -6, were cleaved after 3 h of exposure to 3-IAABE, followed by DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of caspase-9, -3, or -6, respectively, inhibited the cleavage of DNA fragmentation factor and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and thus inhibited the onset of apoptosis. 3-IAABE showed antitumor activities in the panel of 60 National Cancer Institute human tumor cell lines with total growth inhibition in the range of 0.22-4.3 μM for solid tumor lines and 0.025-0.22 μM for leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. The 3-IAABU total growth inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated healthy human lymphocytes was 450-fold greater than that of leukemic cells. 3-IAABE significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocarcinoma (BEL-7402) in nude mice by 72% in tumor volume, more strongly than did vincristine (43% inhibition). Besides being a novel lead for the design of new anticancer tubulin ligands, the activity of 3-IAABE in the cell cycle may also help us to understand the molecular pharmacology of microtubule-active drugs.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research