Dynactin, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed component of an activator of vesicle motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein

Steven R. Gill, Trina A. Schroer, Illya Szilak, Eric R. Steuer, Michael Sheetz, Don W. Cleveland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Although cytoplasmic dynein is known to attach to microtubules and translocate toward their minus ends, dynein's ability to serve in vitro as a minus end-directed transporter of membranous organelles depends on additional soluble factors. We show here that a ∼20S polypeptide complex (referred to as Activator I; Schroer, T. A., and M. P. Sheetz. 1991a. J. Cell Biol. 115:1309-1318.) stimulates dynein-mediated vesicle transport. A major component of the activator complex is a doublet of 150-kD polypeptides for which we propose the name dynactin (for dynein acrivator). The 20S dynactin complex is required for in vitro vesicle motility since depletion of it with a mAb to dynactin eliminates vesicle movement. Cloning of a brain specific isoform of dynactin from chicken reveals a 1,053 amino acid polypeptide composed of two coiled-coil α-helical domains interrupted by a spacer. Both this structural motif and the underlying primary sequence are highly conserved in vertebrates with 85% sequence identity within a central 1,000-residue domain of the chicken and rat proteins. As abundant as dynein, dynactin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to be encoded by a single gene that yields at least three alternative isoforms. The probable homologue in Drosophila is the gene Glued, whose protein product shares 50% sequence identity with vertebrate dynactin and whose function is essential for viability of most (and perhaps all) cells in the organism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1639-1650
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume115
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991
Externally publishedYes

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Cytoplasmic Dyneins
Dyneins
Peptides
Vertebrates
Chickens
Protein Isoforms
Transport Vesicles
Conserved Sequence
Microtubules
Organelles
Genes
Drosophila
Names
Dynactin Complex
Organism Cloning
Proteins
Amino Acids
Brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Dynactin, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed component of an activator of vesicle motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein. / Gill, Steven R.; Schroer, Trina A.; Szilak, Illya; Steuer, Eric R.; Sheetz, Michael; Cleveland, Don W.

In: Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 115, No. 6, 01.01.1991, p. 1639-1650.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gill, Steven R. ; Schroer, Trina A. ; Szilak, Illya ; Steuer, Eric R. ; Sheetz, Michael ; Cleveland, Don W. / Dynactin, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed component of an activator of vesicle motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein. In: Journal of Cell Biology. 1991 ; Vol. 115, No. 6. pp. 1639-1650.
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