Dynamic interactions of ceftriaxone and environmental variables suppress amphetamine seeking

Erik J. Garcia, David L. Arndt, Mary E. Cain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Extrasynaptic glutamate within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a driver of relapse. Cocaine, ethanol, and methamphetamine reduce the expression of cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) and primary glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) leading to increased extrasynaptic glutamate. Ceftriaxone (CTX) restores xCT and GLT1 expression and effectively suppresses cocaine and ethanol reinstatement, however, the effects of CTX on amphetamine (AMP) reinstatement are not determined. Rodents were reared in an enriched condition (EC), isolated (IC), or standard condition (SC) and trained in AMP self-administration (0.1 mg/kg/infusion). EC, IC, and SC rats received injections of SAL or CTX (200 mg/kg) after daily extinction sessions. Then rats were tested in cue- and AMP-induced reinstatement tests. We hypothesized that EC rearing would reduce reinstatement by altering GLT1 or xCT expression in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In Experiment 2, pair-housed rats received once-daily AMP (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) or SAL for eight days followed by once-daily CTX (200 mg/kg i.p.) or SAL injections for 10 days. CTX treatment reduced cue-induced drug seeking in EC rats but not IC or SC rats. In an AMP-induced reinstatement test, CTX reduced AMP-induced drug seeking in EC and SC rats, but not IC rats. Western blot analyses revealed that AMP self-administration and non-contingent repeated AMP exposure did not downregulate GLT1 or xCT in the NAc or mPFC. Therefore, the ability for EC housing to reduce amphetamine seeking may work through other mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-72
Number of pages10
JournalBrain Research
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Amphetamine reinstatement
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Environmental enrichment
  • Glutamate transporter GLT1 and cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT
  • Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
  • Nucleus accumbens (NAc)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology


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