Early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage

Predictor of ventilator-associated pneumonia?

Christian Todd Minshall, Evert A. Eriksson, Kenneth S. Hawkins, Steven Wolf, Joseph P. Minei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a problem in trauma and emergency general surgery patients. Our hospital-acquired infection prevention committee approved the use of early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (screening-BAL) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to identify ventilated patients with bronchiolar bacteria before 48 hours. We reviewed the results of this quality improvement initiative. METHODS: All ventilated patients in the SICU (March 2011 to June 2012) underwent a screening-BAL 36 hours to 48 hours after intubation; quantitative culture results (95 - 104 colony-forming unit per milliliter) were used to identify positive specimens. Clinical pneumonia was defined as clinical pulmonary infection score greater than 6 with a subsequent positive diagnostic-BAL result. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were averaged for the first 48 hours in the SICU. Continuous and dichotomous data were compared, and a multivariate regression analysis was performed on the screening-BAL and pneumonia results. RESULTS: Screening-BALswere performed in 150 patients (99 trauma and 51 emergency general surgery patients), 72 of these specimens had positive findings. Fifty-three clinical pneumonias were diagnosed, and 45 (positive predictive value, 0.85) identified the same organism as the screening-BAL. Clinical pneumonia developed in eight patients with a negative screening-BAL (negative predictive value, 0.85). Antibiotic therapy at the time of the screening-BAL was associated with a negative screen (odds ratio, 0.44; p = 0.026). Pneumonia developed on median postintubation Day 4 (2-15 days) in patients with a positive screening-BAL results as compared with day 7.5 in the patients with a negative screening-BAL results (3.5-15 days; p = 0.007). Field intubation is an independent risk factor (odds ratio, 3.5; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Positive screening-BAL results in trauma and emergency general surgery patients are associated with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia by the same organism and may play a role in identifying patients at risk for pneumonia. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the role of screening-BAL in this patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)448-453
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Dimercaprol
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Pneumonia
Critical Care
Intensive Care Units
Emergencies
Intubation
Wounds and Injuries
Odds Ratio
Organ Dysfunction Scores
Cross Infection
Quality Improvement
Stem Cells
Multivariate Analysis
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Surgical intensive care unit
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this

Early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage : Predictor of ventilator-associated pneumonia? / Minshall, Christian Todd; Eriksson, Evert A.; Hawkins, Kenneth S.; Wolf, Steven; Minei, Joseph P.

In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vol. 74, No. 2, 01.02.2013, p. 448-453.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Minshall, Christian Todd ; Eriksson, Evert A. ; Hawkins, Kenneth S. ; Wolf, Steven ; Minei, Joseph P. / Early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage : Predictor of ventilator-associated pneumonia?. In: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2013 ; Vol. 74, No. 2. pp. 448-453.
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AU - Hawkins, Kenneth S.

AU - Wolf, Steven

AU - Minei, Joseph P.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a problem in trauma and emergency general surgery patients. Our hospital-acquired infection prevention committee approved the use of early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (screening-BAL) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to identify ventilated patients with bronchiolar bacteria before 48 hours. We reviewed the results of this quality improvement initiative. METHODS: All ventilated patients in the SICU (March 2011 to June 2012) underwent a screening-BAL 36 hours to 48 hours after intubation; quantitative culture results (95 - 104 colony-forming unit per milliliter) were used to identify positive specimens. Clinical pneumonia was defined as clinical pulmonary infection score greater than 6 with a subsequent positive diagnostic-BAL result. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were averaged for the first 48 hours in the SICU. Continuous and dichotomous data were compared, and a multivariate regression analysis was performed on the screening-BAL and pneumonia results. RESULTS: Screening-BALswere performed in 150 patients (99 trauma and 51 emergency general surgery patients), 72 of these specimens had positive findings. Fifty-three clinical pneumonias were diagnosed, and 45 (positive predictive value, 0.85) identified the same organism as the screening-BAL. Clinical pneumonia developed in eight patients with a negative screening-BAL (negative predictive value, 0.85). Antibiotic therapy at the time of the screening-BAL was associated with a negative screen (odds ratio, 0.44; p = 0.026). Pneumonia developed on median postintubation Day 4 (2-15 days) in patients with a positive screening-BAL results as compared with day 7.5 in the patients with a negative screening-BAL results (3.5-15 days; p = 0.007). Field intubation is an independent risk factor (odds ratio, 3.5; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Positive screening-BAL results in trauma and emergency general surgery patients are associated with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia by the same organism and may play a role in identifying patients at risk for pneumonia. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the role of screening-BAL in this patient population.

AB - BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a problem in trauma and emergency general surgery patients. Our hospital-acquired infection prevention committee approved the use of early nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (screening-BAL) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to identify ventilated patients with bronchiolar bacteria before 48 hours. We reviewed the results of this quality improvement initiative. METHODS: All ventilated patients in the SICU (March 2011 to June 2012) underwent a screening-BAL 36 hours to 48 hours after intubation; quantitative culture results (95 - 104 colony-forming unit per milliliter) were used to identify positive specimens. Clinical pneumonia was defined as clinical pulmonary infection score greater than 6 with a subsequent positive diagnostic-BAL result. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were averaged for the first 48 hours in the SICU. Continuous and dichotomous data were compared, and a multivariate regression analysis was performed on the screening-BAL and pneumonia results. RESULTS: Screening-BALswere performed in 150 patients (99 trauma and 51 emergency general surgery patients), 72 of these specimens had positive findings. Fifty-three clinical pneumonias were diagnosed, and 45 (positive predictive value, 0.85) identified the same organism as the screening-BAL. Clinical pneumonia developed in eight patients with a negative screening-BAL (negative predictive value, 0.85). Antibiotic therapy at the time of the screening-BAL was associated with a negative screen (odds ratio, 0.44; p = 0.026). Pneumonia developed on median postintubation Day 4 (2-15 days) in patients with a positive screening-BAL results as compared with day 7.5 in the patients with a negative screening-BAL results (3.5-15 days; p = 0.007). Field intubation is an independent risk factor (odds ratio, 3.5; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Positive screening-BAL results in trauma and emergency general surgery patients are associated with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia by the same organism and may play a role in identifying patients at risk for pneumonia. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the role of screening-BAL in this patient population.

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