Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a major role in prostate carcinoma progression and bone metastasis. Once prostate cancers become androgen-independent, treatment options become limited. Vitamin D analogues represent a potentially valuable class of agents in this clinical context. Using the prostate cancer cell line C4-2 as a model, we studied the effects of PTHrP and the noncalcemic vitamin D analogue EB1089 on markers of prostate cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. C4-2 is a second-generation androgen-independent LNCaP subline that metastasizes to the lymph nodes and bone when injected into nude mice and produces mixed lytic/blastic lesions, mimicking the in vivo situation. We report that PTHrP increases cell migration and invasion, and that a pathway via which EB1089 inhibits these processes is through down-regulation of PTHrP expression. PTHrP also increases anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo; EB1089 reverses these effects. The in vivo PTHrP effects are accompanied by increased tumor cell proliferation and survival. Treatment with EB1089 reverses the proliferative but not the antiapoptotic effects of PTHrP. PTHrP also increases intratumor vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression; EB1089 reverses these effects. Intracardially injected C4-2 cells produce predominantly osteoblastic lesions; PTHrP overexpression decreases the latency, increases the severity and alters the bone lesion profile to predominantly osteolytic. EB1089 largely reverses these PTHrP effects. A direct correlation between PTHrP immunoreactivity and increasing tumor grade is observed in human prostate cancer specimens. Thus, decreasing PTHrP production by treatment with vitamin D analogues may prove therapeutically beneficial for prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research