Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training and Essential Amino Acid Supplementation for 24 Weeks on Physical Function, Body Composition, and Muscle Metabolism in Healthy, Independent Older Adults

A Randomized Clinical Trial

Melissa M. Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L. Timmerman, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Michael S. Borack, Paul T. Reidy, Rachel Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake Rasmussen, Elena Volpi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. OBJECTIVE: In this Phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: We phone-screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, nonfrail, and nondiabetic older adults (age 72 ± 1 years). We used a 2 × 2 factorial design. The interventions were: daily nutritional supplementation (15 g EAA or placebo) and physical activity (supervised AE training 3 days/week or monitored habitual activity) for 24 weeks. Muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and muscle protein synthesis were measured before and after the 24-week intervention. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects completed the 24-week intervention. VO2peak and walking speed increased (p < .05) in both AE groups, irrespective of supplementation type, but muscle strength increased only in the EAA + AE group (p < .05). EAA supplementation acutely increased (p < .05) muscle protein synthesis from basal both before and after the intervention, with a larger increase in the EAA + AE group after the intervention. Total and regional lean body mass did not change significantly with any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In nonfrail, independent, healthy older adults AE training increased walking speed and aerobic fitness, and, when combined with EAA supplementation, it also increased muscle strength and EAA-stimulated muscle protein synthesis. These increases occurred without improvements in muscle mass.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1598-1604
Number of pages7
JournalThe journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
Volume74
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2019

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Essential Amino Acids
Body Composition
Randomized Controlled Trials
Exercise
Muscles
Muscle Proteins
Muscle Strength
Placebos
Skeletal Muscle

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Exercise
  • Nutrition
  • Physical performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

@article{becf6d04cb4145b6b72307261fa7e5ac,
title = "Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training and Essential Amino Acid Supplementation for 24 Weeks on Physical Function, Body Composition, and Muscle Metabolism in Healthy, Independent Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. OBJECTIVE: In this Phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: We phone-screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, nonfrail, and nondiabetic older adults (age 72 ± 1 years). We used a 2 × 2 factorial design. The interventions were: daily nutritional supplementation (15 g EAA or placebo) and physical activity (supervised AE training 3 days/week or monitored habitual activity) for 24 weeks. Muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and muscle protein synthesis were measured before and after the 24-week intervention. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects completed the 24-week intervention. VO2peak and walking speed increased (p < .05) in both AE groups, irrespective of supplementation type, but muscle strength increased only in the EAA + AE group (p < .05). EAA supplementation acutely increased (p < .05) muscle protein synthesis from basal both before and after the intervention, with a larger increase in the EAA + AE group after the intervention. Total and regional lean body mass did not change significantly with any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In nonfrail, independent, healthy older adults AE training increased walking speed and aerobic fitness, and, when combined with EAA supplementation, it also increased muscle strength and EAA-stimulated muscle protein synthesis. These increases occurred without improvements in muscle mass.",
keywords = "Body composition, Exercise, Nutrition, Physical performance",
author = "Markofski, {Melissa M.} and Kristofer Jennings and Timmerman, {Kyle L.} and Dickinson, {Jared M.} and Fry, {Christopher S.} and Borack, {Michael S.} and Reidy, {Paul T.} and Rachel Deer and Amanda Randolph and Blake Rasmussen and Elena Volpi",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1093/gerona/gly109",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "74",
pages = "1598--1604",
journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences",
issn = "1079-5006",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training and Essential Amino Acid Supplementation for 24 Weeks on Physical Function, Body Composition, and Muscle Metabolism in Healthy, Independent Older Adults

T2 - A Randomized Clinical Trial

AU - Markofski, Melissa M.

AU - Jennings, Kristofer

AU - Timmerman, Kyle L.

AU - Dickinson, Jared M.

AU - Fry, Christopher S.

AU - Borack, Michael S.

AU - Reidy, Paul T.

AU - Deer, Rachel

AU - Randolph, Amanda

AU - Rasmussen, Blake

AU - Volpi, Elena

PY - 2019/9/15

Y1 - 2019/9/15

N2 - BACKGROUND: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. OBJECTIVE: In this Phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: We phone-screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, nonfrail, and nondiabetic older adults (age 72 ± 1 years). We used a 2 × 2 factorial design. The interventions were: daily nutritional supplementation (15 g EAA or placebo) and physical activity (supervised AE training 3 days/week or monitored habitual activity) for 24 weeks. Muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and muscle protein synthesis were measured before and after the 24-week intervention. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects completed the 24-week intervention. VO2peak and walking speed increased (p < .05) in both AE groups, irrespective of supplementation type, but muscle strength increased only in the EAA + AE group (p < .05). EAA supplementation acutely increased (p < .05) muscle protein synthesis from basal both before and after the intervention, with a larger increase in the EAA + AE group after the intervention. Total and regional lean body mass did not change significantly with any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In nonfrail, independent, healthy older adults AE training increased walking speed and aerobic fitness, and, when combined with EAA supplementation, it also increased muscle strength and EAA-stimulated muscle protein synthesis. These increases occurred without improvements in muscle mass.

AB - BACKGROUND: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. OBJECTIVE: In this Phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: We phone-screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, nonfrail, and nondiabetic older adults (age 72 ± 1 years). We used a 2 × 2 factorial design. The interventions were: daily nutritional supplementation (15 g EAA or placebo) and physical activity (supervised AE training 3 days/week or monitored habitual activity) for 24 weeks. Muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and muscle protein synthesis were measured before and after the 24-week intervention. RESULTS: Forty-five subjects completed the 24-week intervention. VO2peak and walking speed increased (p < .05) in both AE groups, irrespective of supplementation type, but muscle strength increased only in the EAA + AE group (p < .05). EAA supplementation acutely increased (p < .05) muscle protein synthesis from basal both before and after the intervention, with a larger increase in the EAA + AE group after the intervention. Total and regional lean body mass did not change significantly with any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In nonfrail, independent, healthy older adults AE training increased walking speed and aerobic fitness, and, when combined with EAA supplementation, it also increased muscle strength and EAA-stimulated muscle protein synthesis. These increases occurred without improvements in muscle mass.

KW - Body composition

KW - Exercise

KW - Nutrition

KW - Physical performance

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U2 - 10.1093/gerona/gly109

DO - 10.1093/gerona/gly109

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 1598

EP - 1604

JO - Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

JF - Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

SN - 1079-5006

IS - 10

ER -