Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil

Raquel Lima Souza, Vánio André Mugabe, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer Paploski, Moreno S. Rodrigues, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos Moreira, Leile Camila Jacob Nascimento, Christopher Michael Roundy, Scott Weaver, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Uriel Kitron, Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Methods: Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. Results: During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P < 0.001), none (0.0%) had immatures (P < 0.001), and 3 (5.8%) contained adults (P = 0.039). The total number of Ae. aegypti immatures collected decreased from 109 to 0 (P < 0.001) and adults decreased from 37 to 8 (P = 0.011) after the intervention. Collection of immature and adult non-Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. Conclusion: This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number328
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 11 2017

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Keywords

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Arboviruses
  • Catch basin
  • Disease vectors
  • Entomology
  • Epidemiology
  • Insect vectors
  • Mosquitoes
  • Storm drain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Souza, R. L., Mugabe, V. A., Paploski, I. A. D., Rodrigues, M. S., Moreira, P. S. D. S., Nascimento, L. C. J., Roundy, C. M., Weaver, S., Reis, M. G., Kitron, U., & Ribeiro, G. S. (2017). Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil. Parasites and Vectors, 10(1), [328]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2266-6