Effects of adherence to a higher protein diet on weight loss, markers of health, and functional capacity in older women participating in a resistance-based exercise program

Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul Labounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B. Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B. Kreider

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Abstract

Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65.9 ± 4.7 years; 78.7 ± 11 kg, 30.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 43.5 ± 3.6% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only group (E), an exercise plus hypo-energetic higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, or a higher protein diet (HP) diet. Participants followed their respective diet plans and performed a supervised 30-min circuit-style resistance exercise program 3 d/wk. Participants were tested at 0, 10, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of changes from baseline with [95% confidence intervals]. Results revealed that after 14 weeks, participants in the HP group experienced significantly greater reductions in weight (E −1.3 ± 2.3, [−2.4, −0.2]; HC −3.0 ± 3.1 [−4.5, −1.5]; HP −4.8 ± 3.2, [−6.4, −3.1]%, p = 0.003), fat mass (E −2.7 ± 3.8, [−4.6, −0.9]; HC −5.9 ± 4.2 [−8.0, −3.9]; HP −10.2 ± 5.8 [−13.2, –7.2%], p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (E −2.0 ± 3.5 [−3.7, −0.3]; HC −4.3 ± 3.2 [−5.9, −2.8]; HP −6.3 ± 3.5 [−8.1, −4.5] %, p = 0.002) with no significant reductions in fat-free mass or resting energy expenditure over time or among groups. Significant differences were observed in leptin (E −1.8 ± 34 [−18, 14]; HC 43.8 ± 55 [CI 16, 71]; HP −26.5 ± 70 [−63, −9.6] ng/mL, p = 0.001) and adiponectin (E 43.1 ± 76.2 [6.3, 79.8]; HC −27.9 ± 33.4 [−44.5, −11.3]; HP 52.3 ± 79 [11.9, 92.8] µg/mL, p = 0.001). All groups experienced significant improvements in muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, markers of balance and functional capacity, and several markers of health. These findings indicate that a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition compared to a higher carbohydrate diet in older females.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1070
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 11 2018

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Keywords

  • Diet
  • Elderly
  • Exercise
  • Functional capacity
  • Sarcopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Galbreath, M., Campbell, B., Labounty, P., Bunn, J., Dove, J., Harvey, T., Hudson, G., Gutierrez, J., Levers, K., Galvan, E., Jagim, A., Greenwood, L., Cooke, M. B., Greenwood, M., Rasmussen, C., & Kreider, R. B. (2018). Effects of adherence to a higher protein diet on weight loss, markers of health, and functional capacity in older women participating in a resistance-based exercise program. Nutrients, 10(8), [1070]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081070