Effects of antihypertensive drugs on hepatic heme biosynthesis, and evaluation of ferrochelatase inhibitors to simplify testing of drugs for heme pathway induction

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Abstract

Effects of a series of antihypertensive drugs on the activity of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and on the formation of porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were examined in the 18-day-old chick embryo liver in ovo. Hydralazine, pargyline, phenoxybenzamine, clonidine, and spironolactone were found to induce δ-aminolevulinate synthase in this system. These drugs therfore have the potential to precipitate clinical expression in human hereditary hepatic porphyrias and should be avoided or used with caution in patients with these disorders. Differential effects of these and other drugs were observed in the avian liver, in that δ-aminolevulinate synthase was more commonly induced thatn were porphyrins and cytochrome -450; the synthase was usually highest 6-12 h after injection, whereas porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were highest at 24 h. Furthermore marked porphyrin accumulation was not seen with many drugs that induce σ-aminolevulinate synthase and cytochrome P-450 but was more characteristic of compounds that reduced the metabolism of protoporphyrin to heme, such as 1,4-dihydro-3,5-dicarbethoxycollidne (DDC) and high dose of hydralazine. A sensitive and convenient method to test for capacity to induce heme biosynthesis was adapted for use in the chick embryo liver. This employed a relatively small "priming" dose (0.25 mg) of DDC given with a drug being tested and a fluorometric assay of porphyrins in a liver homogenate obtained at 24 h. This simple method should facilitate screening for those drugs which induce the synthesis of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and/or cytochrome P-450 and are potentially dangerous to patients with hereditary hepatic porphyria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-327
Number of pages15
JournalBBA - General Subjects
Volume543
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 18 1978
Externally publishedYes

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Ferrochelatase
Biosynthesis
Porphyrins
Heme
Antihypertensive Agents
Liver
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Hepatic Porphyria
Testing
Hydralazine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Chick Embryo
Pargyline
Phenoxybenzamine
Preclinical Drug Evaluations
Spironolactone
Clonidine
Cytochromes
Metabolism
Precipitates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Effects of antihypertensive drugs on hepatic heme biosynthesis, and evaluation of ferrochelatase inhibitors to simplify testing of drugs for heme pathway induction",
abstract = "Effects of a series of antihypertensive drugs on the activity of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and on the formation of porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were examined in the 18-day-old chick embryo liver in ovo. Hydralazine, pargyline, phenoxybenzamine, clonidine, and spironolactone were found to induce δ-aminolevulinate synthase in this system. These drugs therfore have the potential to precipitate clinical expression in human hereditary hepatic porphyrias and should be avoided or used with caution in patients with these disorders. Differential effects of these and other drugs were observed in the avian liver, in that δ-aminolevulinate synthase was more commonly induced thatn were porphyrins and cytochrome -450; the synthase was usually highest 6-12 h after injection, whereas porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were highest at 24 h. Furthermore marked porphyrin accumulation was not seen with many drugs that induce σ-aminolevulinate synthase and cytochrome P-450 but was more characteristic of compounds that reduced the metabolism of protoporphyrin to heme, such as 1,4-dihydro-3,5-dicarbethoxycollidne (DDC) and high dose of hydralazine. A sensitive and convenient method to test for capacity to induce heme biosynthesis was adapted for use in the chick embryo liver. This employed a relatively small {"}priming{"} dose (0.25 mg) of DDC given with a drug being tested and a fluorometric assay of porphyrins in a liver homogenate obtained at 24 h. This simple method should facilitate screening for those drugs which induce the synthesis of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and/or cytochrome P-450 and are potentially dangerous to patients with hereditary hepatic porphyria.",
author = "Karl Anderson",
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T1 - Effects of antihypertensive drugs on hepatic heme biosynthesis, and evaluation of ferrochelatase inhibitors to simplify testing of drugs for heme pathway induction

AU - Anderson, Karl

PY - 1978/10/18

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N2 - Effects of a series of antihypertensive drugs on the activity of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and on the formation of porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were examined in the 18-day-old chick embryo liver in ovo. Hydralazine, pargyline, phenoxybenzamine, clonidine, and spironolactone were found to induce δ-aminolevulinate synthase in this system. These drugs therfore have the potential to precipitate clinical expression in human hereditary hepatic porphyrias and should be avoided or used with caution in patients with these disorders. Differential effects of these and other drugs were observed in the avian liver, in that δ-aminolevulinate synthase was more commonly induced thatn were porphyrins and cytochrome -450; the synthase was usually highest 6-12 h after injection, whereas porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were highest at 24 h. Furthermore marked porphyrin accumulation was not seen with many drugs that induce σ-aminolevulinate synthase and cytochrome P-450 but was more characteristic of compounds that reduced the metabolism of protoporphyrin to heme, such as 1,4-dihydro-3,5-dicarbethoxycollidne (DDC) and high dose of hydralazine. A sensitive and convenient method to test for capacity to induce heme biosynthesis was adapted for use in the chick embryo liver. This employed a relatively small "priming" dose (0.25 mg) of DDC given with a drug being tested and a fluorometric assay of porphyrins in a liver homogenate obtained at 24 h. This simple method should facilitate screening for those drugs which induce the synthesis of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and/or cytochrome P-450 and are potentially dangerous to patients with hereditary hepatic porphyria.

AB - Effects of a series of antihypertensive drugs on the activity of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and on the formation of porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were examined in the 18-day-old chick embryo liver in ovo. Hydralazine, pargyline, phenoxybenzamine, clonidine, and spironolactone were found to induce δ-aminolevulinate synthase in this system. These drugs therfore have the potential to precipitate clinical expression in human hereditary hepatic porphyrias and should be avoided or used with caution in patients with these disorders. Differential effects of these and other drugs were observed in the avian liver, in that δ-aminolevulinate synthase was more commonly induced thatn were porphyrins and cytochrome -450; the synthase was usually highest 6-12 h after injection, whereas porphyrins and cytochrome P-450 were highest at 24 h. Furthermore marked porphyrin accumulation was not seen with many drugs that induce σ-aminolevulinate synthase and cytochrome P-450 but was more characteristic of compounds that reduced the metabolism of protoporphyrin to heme, such as 1,4-dihydro-3,5-dicarbethoxycollidne (DDC) and high dose of hydralazine. A sensitive and convenient method to test for capacity to induce heme biosynthesis was adapted for use in the chick embryo liver. This employed a relatively small "priming" dose (0.25 mg) of DDC given with a drug being tested and a fluorometric assay of porphyrins in a liver homogenate obtained at 24 h. This simple method should facilitate screening for those drugs which induce the synthesis of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and/or cytochrome P-450 and are potentially dangerous to patients with hereditary hepatic porphyria.

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