Background: Recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide produced via the neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved mainly in the early response to sepsis, whereas nitric oxide derived from the inducible nitric oxide synthase is responsible during the later phase. We hypothesized that early neuronal and delayed inducible nitric oxide synthase blockade attenuates multiple organ dysfunctions during sepsis. Methods: Sheep were randomly allocated to sham-injured, nontreated animals (n = 6); injured (48 breaths of cotton smoke and instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs), nontreated animals (n = 7); and injured animals treated with a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor from 1 to 12 h and an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor from 12 to 24 h postinjury (n = 6). Results: The injury induced arterial hypotension, vascular leakage, myocardial depression, and signs of renal and hepatic dysfunctions. The treatment significantly attenuated, but did not fully prevent, the decreases in mean arterial pressure and left ventricular stroke work index. Although the elevation of creatinine levels was partially prevented, the decreases in urine output and creatinine clearance were not affected. The injury-related increases in bilirubin levels, international normalized ratio, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue were significantly attenuated. Although plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were significantly increased versus baseline from 12-24 h in controls, plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were not increased in treated animals. Conclusions: The combination treatment shows potential benefit on sepsis-related arterial hypotension and surrogate parameters of organ dysfunctions in sheep. It may be crucial to identify the time course of expression and activation of different nitric oxide synthase isoforms in future investigations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine