Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic mediterranean diet

Antonio Paoli, Tatiana Moro, Gerardo Bosco, Antonino Bianco, Keith A. Grimaldi, Enrico Camporesi, Devanand Mangar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD - 4.7 kg, KDO3 - 4.03 kg, body fat KD - 5.41 kg, KDO3 - 5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)996-1009
Number of pages14
JournalMarine Drugs
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

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Keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Inflammatory cytokines
  • Ketogenic diet
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Omega-3
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery

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