Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic mediterranean diet

Antonio Paoli, Tatiana Moro, Gerardo Bosco, Antonino Bianco, Keith A. Grimaldi, Enrico Camporesi, Devanand Mangar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD - 4.7 kg, KDO3 - 4.03 kg, body fat KD - 5.41 kg, KDO3 - 5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)996-1009
Number of pages14
JournalMarine Drugs
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ketogenic Diet
Mediterranean Diet
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Adipose Tissue
Body Weight
Cytokines
Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
Adiponectin
Uric Acid
Interleukin-1
Interleukin-10
LDL Cholesterol
Urea
Weight Loss
Interleukin-6
Creatinine
Triglycerides
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Insulin
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Inflammatory cytokines
  • Ketogenic diet
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Omega-3
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic mediterranean diet. / Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand.

In: Marine Drugs, Vol. 13, No. 2, 01.02.2015, p. 996-1009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Paoli, Antonio ; Moro, Tatiana ; Bosco, Gerardo ; Bianco, Antonino ; Grimaldi, Keith A. ; Camporesi, Enrico ; Mangar, Devanand. / Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic mediterranean diet. In: Marine Drugs. 2015 ; Vol. 13, No. 2. pp. 996-1009.
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AU - Moro, Tatiana

AU - Bosco, Gerardo

AU - Bianco, Antonino

AU - Grimaldi, Keith A.

AU - Camporesi, Enrico

AU - Mangar, Devanand

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N2 - Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD - 4.7 kg, KDO3 - 4.03 kg, body fat KD - 5.41 kg, KDO3 - 5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

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