The effects of smokeless tobacco purified products 4-(N-methyl-N- nitrosamine)-1-3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), smokeless tobacco extracts (dry snuff, moist snuff, and loose leaf), and the tumor promoters 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate on cell population growth, cell death, and apoptosis were studied in B lymphocyte cell lines harboring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 1 (Raji and X50-7) or type 2 (HR-1K and AG876) and in an EBV-uninfected control lymphocyte cell line (Ramos). Spontaneous apoptosis was present in all EBV- infected cell lines, but at varying levels. Spontaneous and induced apoptosis were generally greater by Student-Newman-Keuls tests in cells harboring EBV type 2 compared to EBV type 1. The greatest effects on cell population growth, cell death, and apoptosis on cells harboring lytic EBV type 1 (X50-7) was with each of the three smokeless tobacco extracts. The greatest effects on cells harboring EBV type 2 was with TPA and n-butyrate. There were no effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on the Raji cell line that harbors EBV type 1 incapable of lytic replication. Smokeless tobacco purified products, NNN and NNK, had no discernible effects. At the concentrations used in these experiments, there appears to be an EBV type-specific response to chemical induction, with greater susceptibility of lytic EBV type 1 to smokeless tobacco extracts and lytic EBV type 2 to TPA and n-butyrate. This EBV type- specific susceptibility to the effects of smokeless tobacco extracts is another phenotypic difference between EBV types. The use of smokeless tobacco products may affect B lymphocytes infected with replication-capable EBV in the oropharynx. The absence of significant effects with NNK and NNN suggests that these properties reside with other compounds present in tobacco extracts.
- 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)
- 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamine)-13-pyridinyl)-l-butanone (NNK)
- Epstein-Barr virus
- N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN)
- Smokeless tobacco
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